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I* "' " * 



. t 



Compiled for the use or Btudents aiul for the 
Vydiana and .Sakime or India, 



Felhw of the Uideeraitij of Madrai, 

Conaponding Membtr of IJie Imjtriat 

Geological Institute, Vienna. 

; I 

Seggendo in piuma 

In fama non si vien ; ne sotto coltro ; 
Senza la qualchi sua vita conauma 
Col tal vostigio in terra di se lasoia 
1 1 Qttal fumo in aere, od in acqua la schiuma. 



I ; 

♦ 3-3 1900 


Thia has been written for the hindu Vydian, for thp 
muhoraraadan Hakim, and for the Btudenta of the Bevornl 
Medical Schools of British India, nil of whom will wish to 
Bee on ontiine traced of the progress of Medicine from tiie 
earliest timea to the present day and learn eomothing of 
the eminent men who have preceded them — Philoaophers, 
Anatomists, Phyaioians and Surgeons— to whom medioal 
Bcience is indebted. I have here endeavoured to supply 
this information in the form ot brief notices of the lires 
of the famous men of Asia, those of India, Araliis, Persia 
and 8yria, of Africa, those of the famous school of Alex- 
andria, and Europe's illastrioQS Philosophers of ancient 
Oreoce and Borne, the Moorish. Physicians of Spain, and 
the modern authors of Italy, Germany, Holland, Francp. 
Britain and America. To obtain tbia information, the 
following works have been consulted : — 

Abba B»Eiw'» Mythology; London, 1T39. 

nmohloBon'B Biuttraphin Medica ; Londnn, 1799. 

WpiiJiin'« IliiiEraphical, HiBtorkal and duonoioeical DictionBrr ; 

Lnndim, IS07. 
Bicwart, Enquire, Charlg*, DHoriptive Catnlo^e at the Oriental 

Library of the lato Tippoo Suilin of Mj-sore ; Cambridge, 

Noel, DiclioDiuira de !g> Fable ; London, 1833. 
Adniii'B aninniary of Geography and History ; London, 1824. 
EncyuJupradiB AmoriCLu ; PbiladelphiB, 1830. 

Riiyle,ii.n.,I.U.B.,Ji.bnFoibea, OB Hindoo Madioine; London, IS37. 
WiBB, M.ii., T.A., Comnienlary on the Hindoo Syat««i of Mediiiioe ; 

CiUciitU, 1846. 
Smith, DiotionBry ut Greek und Roroim Biormphv and MytholuBT ; 

londdD, 1844, lS46and 1849. 
Pococka, India in Griwe ; London, 1862. 
The Engliih Cyclop»dia; London, 1856. 
BeWon'i Unlv«r«al Dioftrnphy. 
A Uannal of Greak and Houian Philosophy and Sdenre : London, 

nnd GlueoT, 1859. 
Oarretl, CU-^M(.'i.l Oictionnry, Madrun. 1871. 
Men .If ih" Tiiiie, by Thunips-io Uooper, r.s.A., Sth Edition, London, 

nrai>ci, llii""ry of the ConllicI between Soligion nnd Scionuu; Lna- 
don, 1S75. 




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Wans-W''* W 

B. C. 1200 } Chiron-— The date of the introduc- 
tion into Greece ot a knuwiedge of the Medical Art ia 
loat in fiiblo. But tie god Apollo was said to preside 
over Medicine whiuh ia hence called Ars Apollouea, 
and Cliinm, oue o! the Centaur race, wbo ia Bujipoaed 
to hftTe lived piior to the acquisition of the Golden 
Fleece and the siege ot Troy, according to the mytho- 
logy of ihe Greeks was nietatuorphoHed into a horse, 
aud while hunting in the mountains aud forests along 
with the goddess Diana he acquired a knowledge of 
medicinal plants and of astronomy. Hia grotto on the 
top oE Mount PcLion became a famoas school, and all the 
beroea of that remote age have been named as his pupils, 
amongst them Bacchus, Rercule?, Jason, jEscalapiua, 
Machaon, Podalirius, .f^neas and Achilles. He taught 
them medicine and surgerj, hunting, mnsic and gym- 
nastics. His descendants in Magnesia, the -Cheiroijidn, 
were long diatinguiithed for their knowledge of medicine. 
Ha is said to have used music aa a remedial ineaaure in 
BickuenB. Several books are attributed to him, amongst 
others precepts in verse fur the instruction of Achilles, 
and a treatiss on diseases of the horse. He was the 
friend and relative of Peleus, father of Achilles, and waa 
the wisest and most just of all the Centaurs, the Ken- 
taui'-oi of the Greeks, who are supposed to Lave bad their 
original seat at Kandahar. 

B. C. 1200 ) .ffisculapiUS, the Aaclepiaa of the 
Greeks, was born ut t-pidaurus, a city of the Peloponne- 
sus. He nas alleged to have been a pu[iil of Chiron, but 
to have so much improved on his teacher's knowledge of 
the Medical .'\rt, that he was deified by the Greeks, yet 
whether during his lifetime or af(ei his death is 



uncertaiu : Pansaiiiiis eaya it was before his deatl 
NumeroHalegeiida have been put forward regarding th 
person or peraoiis of this name, fur there are sttid t 
have been several, and the name has also served to dseig 
iiato a class or family whose members for several canlurie 
practiced medicine under the designation of Asclepiadet 
The Asclepiadte were the priests of the ehrinea raiaei 
in honor of their ancestor, and the sick were brought t< 
the temples for advice. His two sons Machaoa au( 
Fodatirtiia hj his wife Epione, are said to have sccom 
panied the army of Greece to the siege of Troy B. C 
1184. The chief temple at which he was worshippec 
was at Epidaurua in ArgOlia, in the figure of a serpeul 
and at this shriue originated the custom of tbe sick on 
recovery hanging np a figure of tbe injured part. An 
accurate register was kept there of the more grave dieeasea 
and their remediea, Medals of ^sculapiua usually repre- 
sent him as an elderly mau, crowned with laurel, with a 
cup iu his hand from which a serpent is drinking, or as 
all old man with a long beard holding in bis left band 
a aiaffwitb a serpent twining round it, and with his rijtht 
hand holding his beard or pressing the head of a serpent, 
a serpent amongst the idolatrous Greeks as amongst the 
hiudus of the present day being regarded as a bene£ceut 
deity. 'J'he several peratms who took the name of j^acu- 
lapiua are said to have invented tbe use of theprube, of the 
mode of bandaginj^ wounds, ui purgatives, and the art oi 
extracting teeth. The Greeks had other goda of Medicine 
and of Health, of whom the chief were Hygeia, Thelea- 
pborns, Jaso, Panacea. 

B. C. 1100] Dhanwantari is regarded as the 
founder of Hindoo Medicine. Ho takes, in India, the 
place occupied by /Esculapius among the Greeks. In 
pictures, he ia usually represented as a venerable mau 
with a book or cnp of amrita in hia hand, but, unlike 
his Greek brother, he is never with an attendant 
serpent. He is styled Deva-daaa, and ia suppoaed 
to have been rnjah of Kaai (Benares). His great-grand - 
eon (Deva-dasa, sou of Bhimaratha, son of Ketumat, 
BOn of Dhanwantari) was ruling there tintil driven from 
the tliront: ou the oocuiTouce of religious wars be- 

tween buddbiata and intruding asiva foIlowerB ; Deva- 
(Insn tbea tooli a city on the banks of the Guniti river, 
nhich he again lost, to be again recovered by liis boh 
Pratardana, So little, however, is known of the times 
and varying fortunes of the budd'hist and aaiva sects 
while striving iu those early days for mastery in ludia 
that the era of Dhauwaatari can only be conjectured 
to have been about the eleventh century B. C. In >he 
time of Devft-dasa buddhism seems still to have heeu 
Bating on the aggressive. In the brahmanieal mythology 
of the vaiahnavasectofHiudnSjDhanwantari is fabled to 
have been produced from the ocean when it was churned 
by the gods for the purpose of recovering for mankind 
the QomforlB and conveniences lost during the Deluge ; 
then Vishnu at his second incarnation assumed the 
form of a tortoise and took Mount Mandara on his back, 
as a churning rod, around which the gods twisted, as a 
thong, the serpent Vasuki (called also Sesha orAuaota) 
and from their efforts, fourteen precious gifts were res- 
tored to mankind. One of these was "the health-bes- 
towing Dhttuwantari, the celestial physician, who arose 
from the sea when churned for the beverage of immor- 
tality." The fable further indicates that the science ot 
medicine was revealed by Brahma to Ehauwantari 
who became phyBiciaii to the gods, and in a second 
birth, as the son of Dirghatamas, he taught the know- 
ledge bo had of the healing art to his pupil Suaruta. 

B. C. 1000 1 Charaka and Susruta are the 

oldest medical praclitmiiers known to the Hindu people and 
the legends related of them are almost inseparably interwo- 
ven with others descriptive of the origin i>t the Ay ur- Veda. 
This is the most ancient medical work of the Hindus, but 
neither its anthor nor the age in which it was written ia 
known, and only fragments of it have come down to the 
present dny, embodied in the commentaries of subsequent 
writers. The Ayur-Veda, however, retains its fame ; so 
high indeed ie this, that modern Hindus ascribe its 
antliorabip to their gods, some to Brahma and some to 
Siva, and thns unconsciously render divine honors to the 
firet teacLers of medicine, hut other legends carry its 
origin back even to pre-brahmauic times. 



Amnngat the many goda who were worshipped in the 
fai off Vedic agee, who are fabled to have possessed a 
knowledge of the Medical Art, the legends make mentioa 
of ludra, king of heaven ; the Asnini Kuniara, twin' 
phyaioianH of the gods, and of Snrja, the sun deity, who, 
like Apollo among the Greekii, was suppiieed by tLe 
BindUBtobe the fountain oi Medical knowledge; bbso- 
ciated with these was Daksha, a prajapati, one of the pro- 
genitors of mankind. 

Leaviijg the far-back Vedic ages and approaching 
brahmanical timea, we find Brahma the creative principle, 
and Dh an wan tar i, a deified king of Benares, credited with 
an acquaintance with medicine &nd surgery and with 
having beneficently employed themselves in imparting a 
knowledge of the healing art and in curing the diseasea 
of mankind. It has ever been a favorite practice of the 
brahmanical Hindus, as it was with the Greeks, to repre- 
sent their great religious teachers as incarnations of par- 
ticular divinities; but the Hindus allege as regards 
medical science that it was the great original deities them- 
selves who studied and taught and practiced medicine 
with the benevolent object of alleviating the miseries at 
the haman race. 

Someof theshastras, or philosophic writings of the brah- 
manical Hindus, ascribe the authorshipof the Ayur-Veda 
to Siva, and the earlier and generally accepted brahmanical 
legend relates that in the first pure age of their mythology, 
the Satya or Krita-Ynga, man was virtuous, prosperoua, 
happy, and free from sickness, and that all the knowledge 
then required by the human race was oonlaiiied in the four 
immortal Vedas, the Rig, the y»jur, the Sama and the 
Atharva Veda which, as Hindus allege, were Brahma's 
gifts and contained the original code of divine laws. But 
in the succeeding Treta Yuga, a third of the world became 
reprobate, diseases appeared, life was shortened and 
memory impaired j in the Dwapara Yuga, or third age, 
half mankind fell into depraved habits, while during the 
present age, the Kali Yoga, the corruption of the human 
race was such as to cause a still further curtailment of 
life and to leave it embittered by numerous ailments, 
Brahma compassionating man's weakness and sufferingf 
fuiuished the four supplementary books, one of which, 

tlie Ayur-Veda, contained instnictitua how to livn bo aa 
ti) prevent the occurrence of sickness nnd, if illnesB nrose, 
how tn cure it and tlierebj [larrnit the due performance 
of all the dutiBB uf tbiH liftj and ensure LappineMS iu a 
future state. 

Tliifl legend indicates the epoch of the Ayur-Veda, aa 
intermediate between Vedio and brahnianical times. 
Siva who is mentioned in it, ia epokeu of by the propliet 
Amos (v, 2G) whose propbeoiea were delivered not later 
than B. U. 798-78-1. The precire age canuot, however, 
be stated, for no duCea have been determined ne to the 
coioptisitioD of the four Yedaa, and thuse uf their four 
BUpplementa, the Upa.Vedaa, have not even been conjec- 
tured. The ceuturiea which saw the Vedaa produced, 
have been variously eatimated from the 16th to the lOth 
and 0th centuries, B. C, and even so late s.s the 7th 
century before the present era. 

The otiier legend, as to the later origin of the Ayur- 
Veda, is related with alight modificatiima iu the writings 
of Charaka and Snaruta. But both of these authors 
bring its compoaition to post-Vedic times yet mingle 
Vedic and brahniariic deities. The later tradition is to 
the effect that Dakaha, tFtet obtaining frum Brahma 
instrucli'ina in the Ayur-Veda, wrote the Chikilsa Dar- 
Eana or School of Medicine, which he coiumuuicated to 
the Aswini who then became physicians to the guds and 
wrote two medical works, the Chikitsa-Ritna-Tantra and 
the Branibagya. The Aawini were originally Vedtc 
deities, who are fabled to have attained celebrity alike as 
phyaiciausand aurgeona. When the fifth head of Brahma 
was hewn off by Bhairava, the Aawini caused it to re- 
unite : they aUu henled the wounds oF the goda after the 
battle between the Devata and Asura, and they cured the 
paralysed arm of Indra, who, iuoiled by what he saw of 
their skill, was tairght the medical art from theAjur- 
Veda at his own request. 

Aa there ia in tbe above a two-fold account of the 
origin of this ancient book, ao the legenda aa to the mode 
it reached mankind are likewiae two. One of theae takes 
Di into far buck Vedic times, many centuries prior to the 
introductiim of tbe prevailing brahmanical worship. It 
metitious that when mankind iu cuueequence of their 





wickedness liad become ignorant and eickly, the sacred 
aagea, the Muui, grieved at the melancholy Hpect&cle, 
Assembled nu tie Htnmlaya mountaine tu consider A 
remedy. This is tbe earliest sanitury commissioQ on 
record. At what period of the world's history it met, it 
unknown, but tlie names of its £fty merabers hare 
no resemblance to those now in use amongst the modem 
Hindus, almost all of whom are called after some one oi 
Other of the brabmanical doitiea or their incarnations. 
The Commission cousieted of Abarkshi, Agasts, Angira, 
A a wan ay an, Aswaranya, A trey a, Bamadeva, Barisa, 
Bharadwaja, Bbargaba, Bhiksharatreya, fihrign, Gfayi^ 
baim, Deviila, Dliauma, Galavo, Oautama, Ganta- 
mayani, Gargya, Hirauij'akBhyo, Jamadagni, Kusika, 
Kasyapa, Kapya, Eataynyana, Eapinjalu, Eankayaua, 
Kaikasaef, Kaundilya, Lokakshyo, Maitreyao, JtlaricLi, 
Harkaiideya, Narada, Obhijit, Oeita, Faingi, Farjkshi, 
Falastya, Snndilya, Sankritya, ir^ankya, Snktmeya, 
Saraloraa, Sarkaraksliyo, Sauuaka, Vashislo, Vaijavnpi, 
Vadarayana and Viavamitra. Of these, Atreya and Bha- 
Todwaja took a ptomiueot part and the CommiBsioa 
leaolved to send both of them to ludra to be instructed, 
from tbe Ayur-Veda, iu the principleB of Medicine. At 
the GODcIueion of bis studies, BharadwHJn letarued totbe 
Bages to whom he commuiiicated all be had learned and 
Atreya sabeequently tauglit sis pupils, Aguibees, Bhela, 
Jatukarus, Paraaaro, Hahta and Ksbyarapaui, each o£ 
irhom wrote a treatise on medicine and the tinges selected' 
that of Agoibesa as tbe most practical. This was subu- 
quently corrected by Charaka, under whuee name it 
became known, and CLaraka thus became famed as tha 
tencber of medical practitioners on earth, as the Prajapati 
had been in heaven. His hook is undoubtedly the moafc 
sncieiiC and continues to he the most celebrated medicAl 
work in the posseesiun of the modern Hindus. It is ia 

If we turn now to the purely brahmanical legend 6a- 
Bcribing how the Ayur-Yeda reached the buniau race, 
we find ourselves bmught to the fabled time when tha 
Vedas were lost in the Deluge and the Devata, using 
Mount Mandara sa a rod and tbe serpent Anauta as k 
thoDg, churned the ocean for theii recovery. What 


ttiey did obtain was fourteen precioua gifts, amongst 
tlitm DbauwaiitaH, a physician, poaae^sor of the Anirita, 
the water of life. Tliia legend like many others in hindu 
Bj tlioliigy ia fat from clear, bnt it too minglea vedio 
and braliusanio gods ; it first relniefl how DhMwantari 
was iu&tructed by Indra, in a kiviwled^e of the Ayur- 
veda, and Bubsequentlj practiced niedicine with great 
success in lieaveu. Witnessing, however, the ignor- 
ance and misery of mankind and the frequency and 
fatality of the diseases afflicting them, he descended to 
the earth to relieve their maladies atid to instruct them 
in the prevention and cure of disease. He became king 
of Kasi (Benares) under the title of Devadasa, and was 
Bu celebrated for his successful treatment of disease that 
the eagvs sent eight pupils to Benares to study uudec 
Uini. Their names, as among the first students of medi- 
cine, are worthy of record, they were Aurabhra, Baitu- 
rana, Goupuraa, Karabirja, Oupudbnuba, Pousbkalabata, 
Kukeeta, and Sastata. On their arrival, they learned that 
Dhanwantari had left his capital and retired into the forest, 
whether, however, they followed and arranged with bim 
that Susruta, sou of Visvaraitra, a contemporary of Kama, 
should be allowed to ask qoestiins and record Dhau- 
wantari's replies. At the outset, Dhanwantari told Susruta 
that the Aynr-Veda was too bulky to be useful and 
Tecommended him to abridge and arrange it into parts 
au as to facilitite its study. 

Thus, as will bave been seen, there e^iet tbronghont 
India, almost a purely Vedic account of the origin and 
distribution of the Ayur-Veds, in which Indra, Surya 
and the Aswini took part in making it known through 
Charaka, and, also, a brahmanical account of its reaching 
mankind through ijusruta, in which, however, the Vedic 
Indra also finds meDtiun. 

Through the fragments of it that have come down to 
UH in the writings i;f Charaka, Sobruta and their commen- 
tators, we learn that the Ayur-Veda originally consisted 
of 1,000 sections, each of a hundred etanz^'<, making a 
lakh or 100,000 verses (stuka) arranged into eight books, 
aa nuder : 

I, Salya, Surgery. 

3. Salukya, External surgical silments of parts above 



e conar-bones, diaenseB of the nose, mautli, ears, iti^ 
iPiiese two diviaioiiB cuiiatitule the aargical diaeuBea of . 
ludetii s ah on Is, 

KitjR-Oliikitsa, Diseaeea affeotin^ the whola btdy^ 
B fever, dysentery, niiinJA, diabetes, &c, Tliis may 
Bonsidered as constituting the modern practice nf ph^ii 
Bbuta-Vydin, oieiitaL ailineutH, demoniacal pm 
mifions, to be remuved by prayers, uSeringa, ablutii 
'Bediciues, i^c. 

Kuumnra bfaritja, IiiFaiitila ailments , 
Agtida- [antra, Antidotes for poiauns, and poiaua- 
oua snake bites. 

7, IlnBttyaiia-taiitra, chemistry, alchemy, modicioes ■ 
to cure diseaees in gsDeral and restore youth. 

Yuji karana-taiitira, Reproduction ; diseases of 

s uf generation, local diseatiea. 

■ . frotn the above legends it is clear that of the two 

[ancient 'authors who cninnieuted on the Ayar-Veda, 

Cliaiaka naa undoubtedly the earlier, and aeeuis Co 

have lived during, or tuviarda the cluae nf the Vedio 

age j ffbile Susruta wrote as brahnianism wna being 

introduced, but probably long prior tri the great buddhiat 

Lxevival which tha preacliiug of S:ikhya produced. Pro- 

ftfesBor Wilson, however, aeema to entertain the opinion 

pihat both Cbaraka and Susruta wrote during the 10th 

■ or 9th Centuries B. C, grounding his belief on th« 

fact that Dhanwantari, Cbaraka and Siiaruta are nanied 

in the Furanas, also iu poems written during the reign; 

of NaSa liajib. Oliaraka appears to have been a person 

of varied thought and culture and to have had an earnesbi 

desire to teach men how to preserve their healths and Iradi 

virtuoua lives. Ue states iu hib books that the raaterial^i 

folic were communicated by Atreya to A^niveaaby whoi 

it wa? taught to Ubaraka who coudeased or enlarged it s 

Neither Charaka nor Siisrnta, nor any of the anciei 
Commeutiitors on the Ayur-Veda, allowed the preji 
dices that now exist against touching the dead bodj^ 
to interfere with the important and necessary brano) 
of knowledge which can ba acquired by disaectioi 
alone. The anatomical piirts of the ancient books appear 
to have betm prepared from actual disaectiun and all 

UKA ; S 

tbe Bislii are eaid to bave recommended tLe diBsec- 
tion cif liie humau bod; ns proper and tiecea^ar;. Theis 
are Dow, in brnhinaiiic tiiijep, Eeveral races bi^longint! to 
one or other of the many current sects ti muderu Bin- 
duiem wbo miheBitatingly atiidy practical anatomy, and 
HUch BtudentH were doubtless more numerous in tbe 
ancient Yedic times, whuu Cbaraka aod perbaps even 
SuBruta lived, centuries before modern Hinduism was 
tbongbt of. At vcbat eta tbe races vhn form tbe higher 
cnatdB of Hindus took their present attitude of standing 
aloof from tbe study of practical anatomy cannot Dow be 
ascertained. Theoitrema views ■which tliey now enter- 
tain do not find support from their great Lawgiver Manu, 
who is Buppoaed lo have lived B. C. 900. Manu speaks 
lightly of the ceremonial defilement resulting from 
contact with tbe dead ; he says (77) " should a Bralimsu 
touch a fretih human bone, he is purified by bathing ; and 
if it be dry, by stroking a cow or by looking at the ann, 
having sprinkled bis mouth duly wiib water. And 
again, (86) " one who has touched a corpse, is made pure 
by bathing." 

Chariika nnd other ancient pliyaicians say " that a prac- 
titioner should know all the parts of tbe body, both 
external and internal and their relative positions with 
regard to each other; withont such a knowledge be caU' 
not be a proper practitioner." 

SusruCa says that a jo^i should dissect, in order that 
he may know the different parts of the human body, and 
that a surgeon and physician should not only know the 
external appearances but internal structure of tbe body, 
iii order to possess an intimate knowledge of the diseases 
to nhlch it is liable, and to perform surgical operations 
HO as to avoid the vital parts. It is, he Bays, by combin- 
ing a knowledge of books with practical dissection tbnt 
tbe practitioner will alone attain an intimate knowledge 
of the Bulijett of his proffssion. These sound views 
afford ihe eiplanution why the ancient system of Hindu 
Medicine was so complete in all its parts and so perma- 
nent in its cliarsoter. AU the more recent medical 
works of the Hindus are based oo the works of Cbaraka 
and Siisrntft, and the authors have usually adhered to 
the clftiiailieaiiuns and general details of the originals. 


But these imitators being- ig'iiorant of anatomy and < 
the usual causes of disease ai* more defentiTe in ihoi 
descriptions, particularly when they did nut cl'isel; 
follow the more ancient writers. The Greeha ohjected 6 
iha study of practical anatomy, in reserenee of the dealt 
but the ohjection of the modem hindua ia merely that ! 
may occaaion a ceremonial uncleanness. 

The work of Charaba is still regarded aa of the highed 
rank, but from the author's want of exact anatomlca 
and pathnlogica! knowledge, in his manner of treatinj 
his eubjects, and arrangement of diseaaea, he is oftei 
obscure, though his descriptions may be accurate. B 
■a superior to Suaruta in the plan of treatment which h 
recommends, while Suaruta is principally celebratsi 
for his anatomical descriptions and the judicious prin 
oiplea of surgery which his work contains. Charaka^ 
pupils practiced as phyaiciang ; those of Susruta foliowa 
Borgery. Charaka and other writers of great autbnrilj 
treat of diseases under four classes, yiz., Agantuka, at 
diseases resulting from accidents and poisons: 
(Saurira), bodily diseases, caused by improprieties of dis^ 
and derangement of functions: Manasa or mental 
diseases, and Snabhahika or natural diseasesi 

Suaruta arranged diseases into the two great classes, 
eurgical and medical, viz., the Shastra-sadhya, or tbosd 
cnrable by manual treatment, and Snehadi KriyasadhyB, 
diseases to be cured by medicine. 

Susruta'a work, next to that of Charaka, ia the oldes 
book on mediciue possessed by the Hindua. He 
arranged tbe eight hooks of the Ayur-Yeda into i 
chapters. It was king Dhanwantari who auggested thii 
course, when Suaruta with other pupils visited him n 
Benares. Dhanwantari asked thi'm on what he shouli 
first lecture : they answered, on surgery, on the principle 
that, formerly, there were no diseases among tbe gads and! 
wounds were the first injuries which had required treaN. 
ment. Besides, they said, the practice of surgery is xnoTt 
lespeoted, as affording imm<;diate relief and is conneeted 
with the practice of medicine; although the latter hat 
ao conneotion with sur^jery. The form which Susruta'f 
writing assumed was of six bonka, viz. : — 

Surgery, Sutra St'baua, in forty-six chapters. 

f Wno, 


Nosolotry, Nidana St'hana, in sixteen chapterB. 

Anatomy, Sarira St'hana, in ten chaptera. 

Therapeutics, Chikitsa St'hana, in forty chapters. 

Toiocology, Kalpa St'hana, in eight chaptera, 

Local diseases, UttaraSt'haiia.iii sixty aix chapters. 

Professor Wilson mentiona as Ilia opinion that the 
Arabians of the 8th century studied the Hiudu wgrks 
on medicine more ihaa those of the Greeks, and that 
Charaka and Susruta and a treatise on Nosology (Nidana) 
were studied during the reign of Harun nr Kashid and 
Mansur {A. D. 773) either from originals or from Forsian 

The ancient Mahabharata makes mention of sis 
medical works, viz.^ 

Atri Sangita, by Atreya. 

Charaks, by Charaka. 

Agui Besa, by Charaka. 

Bl.ila Tantra, by Bhila, loit. 

Jaiukarna Tantra, by Jatukarna, loil. 

Purasara Sangita, by Parasara, lost, 

Harita Sangita, by Harita. 

liarpari Tantra, by Karpari, lost. 

Susruta and Dhanwantari hy Susruta. 

The very ancient bucks named below are arranged 
according to their supposed eras : 

Charaka, author of Agni Besa and Charaka, on Medi- 
cine and Surgery. 

Susruta, author of Dhanwaatari and Susruts, on 
Mediciae and Surgery. 

Aupadhaoaba, on Surgery. 

Aurabhra, on Surgery. 

Biiila Tantra, by Bhila, on Medicine, lost. 

Jiitukarua Tantra by Jaiukarna, on Medicine, lost. 

Parasiira Sangita, by Purasa, on Medicine, lost, 

Harita Sangita, by Harita, on Medicine. 

Bhagavata, otj Medicine. 

Bhava Prakass, by Ubhatta, on Medicine. 

Todraoanda, on Medicine. 

Chakradatta, on Medicine. 

Prachara ratua ball, on Medicine, 

Saranga dhara, on Medicine. 

Hajaiiir gliaata, on Materia Medica. 




Chakradattn, on Materia Medica. 

Uraliya giiiia, a, CommL-iitary ou Chakraiktta. 

Madhiiba Nidana, Nosology. 

Btiiigiijii Ratiiabnli, Pharmacy. 

Hasa tiatnakar, on Metallic preparations, 

Riiaendra Ghiiitamani, do. 

Bstaendra Kiilpa Drumi, do. 

Madhumati, on Medicine. 

The writings of the Hindua show that at an early 1 
period of their specalations their Philosophera reducad!! 
the material world to five elementary principles and pti' J 
mary qoalitiea by the agency of which they explained thftfl 
appearance, composition and condition of the world andf 
the atructure and functions of the animal body. Thai 
five elements were Oiirtb, water, air, lire and ether, which. i9 
they believed to be cinlained in every sort of food and X 
to enter into the composition of all living bodies. Tbey 1 
put forward the physiological doctrine that air, biJe, a 
phlegm are the three supports of the system; that with- 
out these three biimoiirs and the blmid tbo individual { 
CO utd not exist, and if deT.inged disease and death resulted. 
Pathology was explained by the Uiiidoaon the same 
ciple as their physiology. Nature, they believed, is liable- 
to occasional irregularities, from the impurities in, and 
the imperfect manner in which, the elements and qtiali- 
tiea are raised together. The harmony of the huraoun 
of the body, also, they considered is liable to derangement 
and that at oiie time disease arises froni a relative iucreaM 
of one or mure of the principal humours, at another tinH 
from a diminution of them. Holding these viewB thi 
indications of treatment are to promote the just balauoi 
of the elements and humours by a judicious choice of ali 
ment and by such means as assist the vital principle 
the completion of the aseimitation, and if necessary eject 
ing the corrupted humours from the body b^ emetics, pur- 
gatives, or bloodletting. This doctrine of the humonn 
pathology wa* plausible : it seems, at one time, to ha« 
been believed over a great part of the globe and led t 
the most pernicious preventive means being followed 
Among (he Hindus it was as generally believed and acte^ 
on as in £urope, 

Another plausible doctrine was that all ailments dividi 


theraaelvea into two great classes, of sthenic or a-athenio 
diaeaae, the former being an iDoreaae, tbe latter a diminu- 
tion, of BKciteraent, between the estreniea of which 
health was enppDsed to be placed. This nppeara to 
have been an early opinion among the hiudus. is 
now geuerally believed iu by ttll the Asiatic naliona 
and has led them to the diviaion of remediea into 
Btimalating and cooling, which are employed according 
to the nature of the diseise. For the hot or slhenic 
diaeaseB cooling remedies are used, while hot remedies 
are exhibited to Temove the cold or a-atheiiic ailments. 
The ancient biiidu writings recogTiiza the importance 
of sargery and surgical dexterity when they state that 
" the firnt, best, and moat important of all implements ia 
the hand." 

B. 0. 570— BOil Pythagoras, son of Mnesarchua, 

was the firat to aasume the ticlo of philosopher. He was 
boru in the iaiand of Samos B. C. 570, or as some say 
B. C. 586 or 584. Much related of him ia doubtful. But 
lie was educated in Greece, and subsequently travelled, 
between B.C. 500 — 540,fortwenly or thirty years inSyria, 
PhcBiiiceB, Egypt, Arabia, Chaldea, India and Gaol. Ueia 
believed to have obtained much information from the 
I>riesta of Egypt, and to have made himself master of the 
doctrines of the Chaldeans, of the Peraiaa Magi and the 
gymnoaopliista and budd'hists of India. Heraclitna 
and all authority bear testininny thnt Pytliagoraa was a 
man of extensive research and acquired inatructJon. The 
Greek name ia supposed to be derived from the word 
Biidd'ha, and Prineep, Colebrook and Pococke believe that 
he was a disciple of Sakya Muni, the Budd'ho, with whom 
he was cotemporary and of whom he was an ardent apos- 
tle. Shortly after hie return to Samoa he visited Crete 
and Sparta, but finally settled at Crotona in the south of 
Italy where he opened a school of philosophy that has 
been called the Italian or Doric. At one time there 
were three hundred students in it. The ethics of the 
Pythayoreana were of the loftiest and moat spirilnal oha- 
ritcter anrl his large school continued to flonrish to near 
the close of bis life, bnt was then broken np during a civil 
commotion. He himself fled to the Locrians, then to 


' MeUpoiitnm, nnd then for refnge to tbe temple or tlw 

I StuiKMwWii hedied at theage of 80, la want. He wafl^ 

L tmangut tbe firet who inveitigated the stroctare i 

J fuiicti'iiiH '-f tile atiinul bod; and his pupils Democr 

L mid Horaclltuu ap[)car to hare added cooaidetiibly b^ 

I tb<; k[i'iivliid(;u uf lUiBtom; and the practice of medicin< 

I ftcfarnl iif the pbiluBiiphical views of Pythagoras seem t| 

I linvD bcRti fintt enunciated by him. His theot;, howevei 

of tho fifo elomeiit«, fire, air, water, earth and ether, i 

thftt of ttie aticiciit hindu philosophers still t 

•nioiiKit the people of India and ihe bud J'hists of Bnrm 

' liid Cuiiin uf the present day. Heeutertaineda tmmerioa 

tlionry i lie belioved in the metem psychosis or transnd 

. ffratiuti of houIb, wliich he is su|>puded to have obtainW 

frimi the prieBts of I'^gypt or from tlie gyrunosophiste (i 

budd'hiatH of India, a doctrine in whirh the biadus nn 

budd'tiintii Btill believe, and he held the eating of anima 

fo<id to be iiiilitwful. lie had married at Crotona sad 

llitd two sonH I'elan^es and Mnabarchns who were hiA 

loholnrN Biid ruccgbsotb. After the breaking up of tb^ 

■otioiil at (Jrutoim and the dispersion of the iiimatee, L^^ah 

Mid ArchippUN collected tbe doctrines of tlieir muter i\ 

■ystomatio treatise ; hut tbe books were still kt^pt bbc 

nnd I'luto bad to purcbiise from Pbilolaus a writing 4 

PytUaKornn, nnd rect-ivcd from A rchy tos bis commeiitui^ 

oil tbe vorun and trealises of his master. Pythagoq 

WHS amoi)g«t tlie first to travel in tbe Kast, followed. \ 

Aiiaxnn-huB mid I'yrrho ; Tbales, Crates and Eudoxl 

travvlU'U iu Kjiypt j Fliuy says " certe, Pythagonw, Ea 

^hliwlrs, lleinuurilus, Plato, ad banc diEceudam nari^a] 

oxMllia vuritiH quaiu peregrination ibus susceptis." 

H 0. tlOO F Agastya, a celebrated philosopher 
|ilijr>iiMHn wliu lat»>red aumng tbe Tamil race io 
•I'Ulh i<t litdiA. LtlleiakimnnTegardirghiro, batlie 
kll«g«l lit liAte IHtroduccd the literature and rcligiol 
Hi«Uca>>(lbn li 'rthviii liiiidus uui'tig the Tamil 
L Bis *nt is R>>t knnwu but it is tupptwed tu have U 
I ^Mit ftflO ft. ('^ E^ifrOiu' Witsou Bays he is named in 
I K>M>M)]n»>4k. Ilia wntiii^ ara all in vcr^ in the Tm 
[ IrtrCT" Mtd k* u balicnd to bar* wntten tba jm 
I <rt»MMi banfc^ pMoiuyhital aad awdieil, as aaJwt 

Pemul 10 

PurauaNiil... ... 

FarSna Sutram... 

Karma Kaiidiin... 300 
AghaatyerVydia... laO 

AN iX IGOR lis. 

Vydia Vagadum, I,-'iOO stanzas, on Medicine. 
KandaPuranam 1,000 on Andeut Histury. 

Toruvaliadol Pu- 

ranam 3,397 on Moral Philosophy. 

PasSvedi 200 Religious Rites of the Hindus. 

UikahaAy&li ... 200 Mngir;, Enchantment ; Educa- 

tion of Youth, 
on all Diseaaeti ; Regimen. 
Exorcism ; Forma of Prayer. 
Materia Medica, Regimen, 
Devotion, Initiation of dis- 

on Diseasea, the resvdt of sin 

on Purification, San ctiS cation, 
on 64 Poiaons and their pre- 
„ „ ... 205 on Medicine, Chemistry. 

„ „ Vagadam 48 on the cure of Oonorrhcea. 

„ „ 16 on Head Diseases i, treatment 

Kallg-ghianam 200 on Theology. 

5(j on Leprosy and the cure. 

Aghastyer Vydia 1,200 on Botany, Materia Medica. 

„ „ 500 on many Diseasea, with raauy 

„ ., 300 on Pharmacy. 

He is regarded by the modern Tamil race as ft malin- 
rislii, [ir Faint. It is possible that some o( the buoks of 
which he is now the reputed author h.tve beeii written 
by his followers, but of this, all is surmise. 

B. C. 500—429. Anaxagoras was bom at Clazo- 
mene, <iiib of the Greek towns of Ionia, three years before 
the death of Pytbaaoras and ten years befure the battle of 
MarathoTi. He was a pupil of Auaximenes, and from 
bis EOth to his 60th year resided at Athens, where Peri- 
cles, Euripedes, Socrates and Archelaua and some say 
DemncrituB were amongst his bearers. He w.-is expelled 
from Athene H. C, 4.51, when Socrates was 37 years old 
and went to Laniptnens on the Hellespont, where after a 
lihort residence of three years he died 13, C. 428, aged 72. 
Ue wrote a book on Natnre and explained the neces- 
sity of separatiris; mind from matter. He adopted 
the theory that all bodies are formed of atoms of the 
same naiurc, put in motion by Noi-t or Intelligence. 

^^L Aft< 

Before liim Anaiimander (B. C. BIO— 546) aon of Pi 
ziades, a disciple of Thales, born at Miletus, had adopted 
the theory of an original iudestructable matter froia 
which ail eraanatea and all returns; also Anaxirae 
likewise a native o£ Miletus ([}, C. 556 ?) taught that 
the air is the iudefijiite, divine, pecpetuallf active, firat' 
principle of all ihingB. 

B. C. 468—399. SocrateS, a philoeitpher of Qreee^; 
whose iiaine is familiar to the muhammadaiis of Asia.. 
He was born at Athens B. C. 468. HU father 
R sculptor and bis mother a midwife. He served 
bravely as a soldier in the Peloponneaiau War aud, at tha 
siege of Potidaia B, C. 4U2, he saved the life of Alni- 
biades, and at the disaBtrous battle of Delium B. G. 4'24i 
that of Xeuophon, another of his pu[)i1s,bi3 own lifo being 
aaved by Alcibiadee. He had several disciples who 
attained eminence, the most famous amongst whom wera 
Plato, Xenophoii and Aloibiades. He does not seem to 
have committed any of bis views to writing, bnt Plato , 
digested bis discourses in tbe form of philosophical c 
versatiooa, making, however, so many improveniBnta' 
that Bocrates one day hearing Plato repeat his Lyei 
exclaimed "Ye gods ! howmanyfiiie things has this yonng 
man made me say which I never imagined !" The autho" 
rities for his doctrines are the Memorabilia and Apology 
of Socrates by Xenophon, the Dialogues of Plato and the 
StrictiUBS of Aristotle. When far advanced ia yean^ 
Socrates engaged in treasonable schemes for which hA 
was condemned to die by the poison of hemlocli juic« 
The solemn celebration of the Deliau festival of Theori 
delayed for a month the carrying out of the sentenoB.j 
during the interval he was often urged to escape hut ba 
refused saying, "wheream Itogo toavoiddealh?" At th( 
close of the festival, B. C. 399, surrounded by his friend^ 

• he poured from the poison cup a libation to the goda^ 
then drank off the contents with perfect composure. H 
walked about the room for a while, and when unable t 

,. do so longer, he lay down on a couch and before his hear 
ceased to beat exclaimed "My friends we owe a cnci, 
(the emblem of life among tbe Greelis) to ^soulapius.'* 
After he had said these words, he covered himself witli 


his oli'ak and expired. Hia permirL and appearance were 
ungainly, Uia pupil i'lati) pnya he bad the hend uS s. 
Sileiiua, bat meiiUl grace eiiiiiibjed bim aud attracled tbe 

n. C. 4fi0— 3G1? Hippocrates iakuown to the 
tLiihammadiinaby the uanie uf Uukriit. He was bom at 
Cii8, B. 0. 4fiO, son of Hemolides and Phaeimrete, of the 
Aactepiadffi family, merabers of which for nearly three 
hundred years fallowed the medical professioa and pro- 
duced seven 'celebrated pbyaiciaiiB who are supposed to be 
theniithorsof mauyof the treatises that are usually attri- 
buted to Hippoorstes atone. It is to- the Asclepiadsethat , 
the science of medicine is indebted fur a atparate exi^t- 
eiiue in Kiirope. Before their time the knowledge of 
medioine was confined to the prieBlhood who kept it 
secret, or it wasfoliowed by the philosophers as a scieii- 
tilio pursuit. Ofall the family, Hippocrates is the 
most famous among the Greek phjsicinnsand he ia re- 
giirded as the founder of modern medicine. He ia 
stated to have been the pupil of Heraclitus and Hero- 
dicua, and he ia therefore claB-wd among the followers 
of Pythagoras. He travelled for a considerable time 
throughoutOreeoe, in Bcytbia, Colchis, Asia Minor and, 
perhaps, Egypt and a great part of Asia. He seems to 
have been unacquainted with anatomy. It was as a 
physician that he was most distinguished. He nocu- 
riitely described the leading features of diseases and 
intrwluoed the inductive plan of observing the pheno- 
mena of nature aud of deducing concluaious from them. 
He taught that the body ia composed of four primary 
elements, fire, water, earth and air ; that these elements 
variously combined produce the four cardinal humours, 
and these again the different oryana of the body. Thesa 
doctrines are principally developed ia a treatise "On 
the Nftturenf Man," and it ia to him thatGalen attributea 
the ttuthotBhip of this theory which waa afterwards 
more widely made known by the geniua of Plato, Hip- 
pocrales originated the doctrine of critical days and in 
his treatment of the sick he paid great attention 
to Buitabledietariea, particnlarly urging the necessity of 
careful dieting in acute disease, He asserted that aus- 


oulttttion would distiiiguiBh between ptiH and serum in ths 
olieBt,aiid2,300yearsafterwnrdaLaeiiuec noticed that ob^ 
Bervatiou. He wasiiutawareof dieitidicatioiiBtDbedrawit 
fromthe-pulae; he employed purgatives largely, bleedintt 
cupping, and scarlfiuatiou. At his time, the distiiictioi 
between Surgery aud Medicine had not been made, he 
amongst the worlca attributed to tiim are treatises o 
fractures, uu wounds of the heiid, aud on ulcers. Hj 
knowledge of anatomy and physiology aud of the fuiia 
tional actiou of the organs of the body dunng beald 
kiid disease was extremely limited, but iu the acci 
ffith which he observed the symptoms of diseast 
Kin the fidelity of his descriptioos he has rarely, if evei 
ed. It is upou these grounds that he bu 
justly obtained the title of the Father of Mediciue auj 
will at all times coiitiuuc to command for him thereapeot 
uf medical men. The e&suje attributed to him are 72 ia 
number but only 15 or 20 are supposed to he genuino. 
* .The most esteemed are the essnys on Air, Wuter and 
p^ocality, on Prognosis, on Wounds of the head, avid 
r-on Diet iu ncntt: diseases, Asclepiadc-s, liufna Hp\iQ 
«tauua, Celsus and Qaleu ulL wrote commeutaiies on 
his writings. The people of Athens conferred on hint 
great honors and decreed a public maiuteiiauoe fot bill 
and his family. He is said to huve died at a 
advanced age (99 ?) at Larissa iu Thesaaly. Hia &rad i 
principally and justly founded on the aoonraoy witi 
wliich he observed the leading features of diseaf 
and his vivid descriptions of them. A complete editioi 
of his works was published in Germany. It is 
that during the plngue of Athens, B. C 431', with t 
the inhabitants of Persia were also nSlicted, Artazerxfl 
iviied Hippocratta to his court, but that he deeUnM 
to leave his countrymen iu their trouble. Neither t 
invitation nor the reply have come down to ua, hut tbt 
tradition is sufficient io show the high estimation i 
which the Greek physicians were then held. His soa 
Tbessalua and Draco and his son-iu-law Folybius wei 
the most renowned of his followers. They founded ifa 
medical school of the Dogmatics who held that diseM 
could only be secure'y trealed on a knowledge of ih 
faealthy sCmclurb and action of the organs i>f the bcMljj 


mid of the influence of remedies and tbe effects of disease 
upon it, Theae views were opjiosed liy the Emjiirics 
who maintained that snch knowledge w»a not only iinne- 
oeasitr.T but unattainable, nnd that simple experience 
should be the only guide to practice. UijipiicraleB was 
the founder of ecientilic mtdicirie by separatiug the 
results "f actual experience frinu mere apecolatiou. His 
syHtem has never received & name but numeri'us as 
have been the b; steins that have been projected since, 
mankind has always relnrned to his principle i>f making 
iibservati'iii the mily rule in the treatment of diseases. 
Tbe dncliine of Hippocrates was blended bj his imme- 
diate aucce'Siirs with the plHtniiio phili)Sophy from which 
arone thepysteraof the dogniatics. in Alexandria B'G. 386, 
medicine hud degenerated into mere dialeclicts and book 
iGarnin^, Tbe dogruatic school was fnllnwed by the 
empiric school (B. U. 2S6,) then by the methodic srhool 
(U. U. lOd) BubsequeMlly by tbe pneitmutic schuul (B, C. 
Gh) and at length by tlie EcUctic achoi'l (A. U. 81) 
nhicb toi'k from nil the otheis. Crileu's views then 
aeautued great i<r<>niiiience, until Ibe time of Avicenua 
wbo for & tnue was deemed superior to Oalan. WeBtern 
Medicine beK'na witb the estublisbmeut of tbe medical 
Hchoiil atS»lerno, perhaps existing since the 9th century, 
but well GStablii^hed in 1 117 and liiSS, when medicine 
was laugbt according- in the (jrinciples of the Greeks. 
The fall of the Galenic solimd was completed in the IGtb 
century (Xti'Hi] by the chemicotheoiiuphit'aL systeiu of 
TIieophioatUB Paiacelsua, 

B. C. 429—347 1 Plato, an illustrious philosoplier, 
cnlled PlatoQ by the Greeks ami t'latun by muharama- 
dan writers. He was burn at Athens in tbe month of 
May, B. C. 429. U is father Ariston was a descendant of 
Sulou ; bia mother Perictione was a descendant of Codius. 
His first teachtr whs UionyaiuH the Grammarian ; 
he subsequently received instructions in gymnastic 'exer- 
cises ftotii Ariston the Argive wrestler, who jjave him tbe 
nmne of Plato on account of tbe breadth of his forehead. 
For eight years he studied under UocrstfS, a great part 
of wliiwe diactmraes he committed to writing , but Euclid, 
Ueteltus, Draco and Dainouare also named as hia teachers 


kb various times. On the death of Socrates he travellM 
to Cyrene, where he studied Ijeometry nud other brascb 
of Mathematics, tie thun took up his residen«e fut 
long time iu Egypt, ohtaiiiiDg in formation fi'om the priests 
&iid aftervrarda dwelt at Tarentuni in Italy. He viaiti 
Italy to Btudy the volcanic |>lienomeiia of Mount Etn 
and on bis return to Athens he eettled and taught in 
neighbonrhood at a [jlaee called the Academy, f 
vhich Ijia school vs.a styled the Academic. On tiN 
invitation of the elder Dionjsiua he went to !ii» coH' 
but Lis I'ree disburse f.ffended the tyrant who itrderedbii 
to beaold as a slave. His purchaser was Anniceres aiiati' 
of Cyrene. who freed him, and he tetumed to Athen 
Though he bad had ample warning from the elder tyrati 
who died B. L'. 368, he revisited Sicily on t4ie invibttio 
of theyounger Dionysius whose conduct, bnweve 
as to compel Plato again to return to Athens 
tanght,aijdattheageof 81 died at Ceramicus. HIa works 
consist of a hmg series of dialogues, the chief interlo- 
cutor beiuu Socrates. His dialogues are dialectical, etlii- 
cal and physical. Ethics were then associated with-poWties^ 
but the philosophy of Plato is sublime, his moroliuyp' 
and bis views of the divine being and of a futun r' 
clear. In physics, he observes that fire, water, air an 
earth mnat naturally be in the composition of all bodie 
His looks have been printed in the original Gra 
' and translations made of tbem into English, French b 
German. The subjects of the dialogues were eleraenta) 
the application of principles, and the union of theory ai 
practice. Aristotle was for many years a pupil of Plal 
but their teaching wad widely different iu mode. 

B, C. 450? PolybiuS, a pupil and son-in-law 
Hippocrates, lived about iha middle of the fifth centu 
' B. C, in the island of Cos. He aspisied Thesealua ai 
Draco, the sons of Hippocrates, in establishing 
ancient Dogmatic school or Hippocratic as it was 
after HippocrHtes, whose doctrines it held. He 
posed to haveleen the autlmr of several of the 
uanally attributed lo Hippocrates, amonr^st o'hers Pi 
gouea; Peri phnsioa paidiou ; I'eri dinites ugieinei 
l-'eri pa'hun, and i'eri ion eiiios pathou, und some eV' 

have ftttribnteiJ to Mm Peri piiusitis anlliruiKin. Celsua 
and Qalen buth mention him. 

B. 0, 440)— 370? Ctesias, boh of Ctesioclius, was 
a Greek |jb;aicLMn wbo lloarigljed ubinit the end oF tiie 
Cth century H. C. He belangetl to Kii Asdeiaiid hnuaa 
at Cnidoa. He t<i(ik Bervice with tbe Qreek mercenarieB 
who joined Cynia, aoii of Diiritis II, in his expeditiou 
sgainat liia brother Artaxerxea Muemon by -whom he waa 
tikkeu ptidOKer at the battle of Cyiiaxu B. C. 401, forty 
milesfrom Babylon. Hereinained at the court of Attaz- 
erxea Mntmoii for Gsventcen years. He wrote » history 
uf I'eraia which he brought down tt' 993 B. C. alau a 
UiaCoty [if India, a treatise on Mountains; adeacrip- 
tiou of Sen Oi>asts, a book on the leveouea of Asia, 
and one ou Medicine. 

B. C. 384—323 ? Aristotle, the Aristoteles of the 
Creeks and ihe Aristoun ol the Arabs, was ihe son of 
Nichomaobus, [ihyaician to Amyutaa grandfather of Alex- 
ander the Great and author of some medical trealises, 
Aristotle was born at Stageita in Macedonia B. 0. 3S4. 
Both his iiareoti, Nichomaohus and Phtestis, were of the 
race or cIrvD of the Asclepiadte, Niuhomachus, his father 
claiming descent from Maohaon sou of ^sculapina. He 
became a pupil of Plato at the age of IT at Atheaa and 
remained there until the deatli of Plato B. 0. 347. 
On this event, Aristotle went to the court of 
Hermias, atAtaruain Mysta aud married the sister of 
that prince. He became the teacher of Alexander 
the Great, boru B. C. ;)5G. His father, B. C. 343, iuvited 
Aristotle to accept the ofBce of tutor in the fol- 
lowing letter; "King Philip of Macedon to Aristotle 
greetinfi ; — Know ihat a son lias been born to me. I 
thank the uoda not ao mucii that th^y have given turn 
to me, as that tliey have permitted him to be born in tHe 
time of Arittotle. I hope that thou wilt fnrm him to 
be a king wortliy to succeed me, and to rule the Maoedo- 
iiiuna" On Alexander d«partini{ for Asia. Aristotle re- 
turned ti> Athens ubere be taught and wrote. Hia school 
was called the Pcripiitelic. Thef(reatest>if liia woika was 
on Katurul History, but bis writings compiiijcd treatises 


22 lltllOPHlLU 

on Medirine, Generntinn, Dtstntrtitm, Metaphyidd 
Philos.ii.liy, Kttic?, Hhetor'n-, Poetry, Phyaios, Pi>Uti« 
EcuiiomiciLl and Meutal Scteiice. Beh^id luhisyoiith |ia 
[articular atteiitiun ti niifttomy laii may iiou-iidy hw 
practiced medictue, but Inter in life it was to tlie atuT 
of fjbiloaopliy and the inveatijatiim of natnra that | 
devoted his whole liuie, and lie was largely aided iit 
researches by bin funiier puiil AlexAnder, wbo sent hi 
the nmrnals "f tbe vnrioiis CDuntries lie ovenaii, Aristotj 
being accused of atheism, left Athens with hia iiBi>i 
and be is su|i|iosed to have died of poison at Chalt 
B. C. 323 or 323, nged 63. Some say iieto.ik poiw 
voluntarily on being summoiied to ap!>eiir at Atbei 
to answer the accusulioii of complicity in the death > 
Alexander. The philosophy of Arintiitle differed grestl 
from that of Plato. The latter (fave a free scope 
his imagination and by his doctrine oF idea!>, ind 
pendeut of the objects which thfy repreaent opened m 
wide diior to tba dreams of mysticism. Bat Ariatotla 
vas a close aud strict observer of both mental and 
physical phenomena, avoiding all the teduotinia oi th* 
fancy and following a severe, methodicnl and Bliictlji 
Bcieutific course of inquiry, fiianded on data aacertaiaa 
by experience. Aristotle's mode of reasonimr is that ao 
known as induclion, or tbut of drawing inferences fro 
all the available [<articular'<, ascending from the parts 1 
the whole. Plsto's mode, that of deduction, ^ 
the reverse, reasoning frum the whole to the part. 
inductive, i>r as it i« often called the AristuteliaQ procei 
is that which ccmmeuda itself ti) iiio><t scientific iniod 
Ha was the head of the Peripatetic sect, and issometiia 
called the Stageiite because born at Stageira. 

B.C. 323-283! Herophilus snd Erasist] 

tns. Herophilus, a native of (Jlialcedon, was out 
the most celebrated of tiie physicians of the Al 
andrian School and lived iu tlie reiRii of the t 
Ptolemy of Egyjit (B. C. 323— 3S3). His booti 
to have been very voluminous, but the only reraiiil 
of them are extracts made by Giilen and Cseli 
AiirelianUB in which tliey are so interwoven with tht 
of bia contemporary Krasistrutus that it is impossible 

Bay what portion of t.lie progreaa made in their time 
■was owing to tbe Itibora of ench. EraaiBtratua had 
been the pupil of Chrysippus, a -violent opponent of the 
Hippocvatic School and a bold innovator in medicine. 
The chief feature relatiug to HerophJlns in tlie progi'SBS 
of medicine waa hia comnienconient of the stud^ of 
anatomy from disaectiona of the human bony and he 
is aaid to have dissected 700 auhjects. He was an 
accurate anntomiat also a good botanist. It wai the 
facilities afforded for the study tif anatomy tliat gave 
enoh distinotioii lo Alexandria as n ir.hoiil of Medicine. 
By the I«bora of Herophilua and Eraaistratus nearly 
every part of the anatomy of the human body was ren- 
dered clearer and many very important discoveries 
were made. They determined that the uerves are con- 
nected with the brain. JJerophilua discovered the arach- 
noid membrane and the chief meeting of the BinuBes 
into which the Teiiisfroni the brain pour their blood, 
is atill culled the Torcular Herophili, Pie noticed the 
lacteals, though he did not ascertain their uses, and be 
did not diatingniah tlie nerves from the tendons, Hero- 
philua practiced Medicine as well as Surge:?. He seems 
to have founded a school which waa known by hia name. 
According to Strabo there was in hia time a great 
ecliool of Herapliiliste established in a temple between 
Laodiceia and Carura in Phrygia, 

B- C.323— 51- Ptolemy-— Thirteen Gneco-Egyp- 
tion kiitps bearing this name reigned in Egypt from the 
deith of Alexaniier till it becu^" a Roman province. 
Under llieir patronage, partitularly under Ptolemy 
Soter and his son Ptolemy Philadelphne, all the acioiices 
were lurj-ely cultivated. The first Ptolemy, an illegi- 
timale son of Philip of Maoedon, aurnamed Sotet, or 
preserver liy the Rhodians because of ihe aasistance ho 
had given them, waa one of the ablest of Alexander's 
generals and in the division of provinces on Alexan- 
der's death, B, C, 323, lie obtained the dominion of 
Egypt, Lybia and part of Araliia and on the death of 
Perdiccaa, he added Ccelo-8yrin, Phcenicia, Jud^aaud 
the island of Cyprus. He waa a Greek and founded 
ihe dyuaaty of the Greek kings in Egypt, etj-led 

I am 

■the Lagidfc., He maintained a complete tolemtion 
ID relii*iou, and gave great enctmrngemeot to learuiog 
and Bcience. He invited men of learning from Greece, 
and laid the fonndation of the far -famed school of learn- 
ing at Alexandria. He died B.C. 284. Ptolemy I[, 
itjied Philndelphua or brother-loving, succeeded bia 
father B. C. 283. He put to death liis two brothers. 
He followed the example of his father in the enooar- 
Rgement of learning. He maintained with great Hber* 
lity many dialiuguiahed philosophers and pneta rf 
vhom the most celebrated were Theocritus, IJycophn 
aad CallimachtiB. He eetablisbeii the public libra^, 
which had probably been commenced by his fatJier, and 
Etlao founded a Muaeum in the palace for the promotJOn 
of learning and the support of learned meu, attac'iinf 
to it botanical and aoological gardens. Ptolemj Iff" 
Bumamed Euergetes, sntceeded his father B. C. 247 tint 
was murdered by his son B. C. 222. Ptolemy Euer^te^ 
on his return from the Syrian ejpedition, took back 
into Egypt all the Egyptian monuments feaxa Ecbatanib 
and Susa which Cambyses aud other imaA^Ta \ut&. 
removed from Egypt. In the times of Ptolemy Soter 
and his son Pkikdelphus, Alexandria was the iateUeo- 
tual metropolis of the world. The king's librarian 
bad orders to buy at the king's expeuse whatever 
books he aould obtain. A body of transcribers wnS 
maintained in the Museum who m^de copies of auoli 
books as cuuld not be purcliased. It is said that Pto- 
lemy Euergetes obtained from Athena the works of 
Euripides, Sophocles and jEschylna, retained the ori- 
ginals and sent transcripts to their authors with about 
thirty thousand rupees aa an indemnity. When worta 
were translated as well aa trauscriiied incredible nuDH 
were paid, as in the case of the Septuagint transla- 
tion of the Bible ordered by Philadelphia. The other 
Ptolerays did nothing for learning. Ptolemy IV, 
ironically suvnamed Philopater or father-loving, bdA- 
oeeded Euergetea. He put to death hia mother, 
wife, brother, sister and uncle, also a Spartan kin| 
who had been protected by iiia father. Ptolemy V, 
Bumamed Epiphanea or lUuatrions, at 5 years 'of age 
succeeded Pbiiopater. He is aaid to have been pm- 




Boned B. C. 161. He left two aona and a daughter 
nftmed Cleopatra. Ptolemy IX the Inst of them ascend- 
ed the throne B. C- 81, was driven from it again, 
bat was afterwards restored and died B, 0. 51, 

B. C. 106?— 481 AsclepiadeS, a native of 
Bythinia, waa born in one of the three towns there 
known by the name of Pruea. The years of his birth and 
death are doubtful : he seems to have been of humble 
origin, but in Athens he lived on intimate terms with 
AntioohuB the Acadamician, the master of Cicero who 
was born B. C. 106, He appears to Lave gone to Rome 
during the earlier part of Cicero's life, and to have lived 
there in the-time of Porapey. At a very advanced age he 
ftccidently fell down ataira and was killed. At first he 
taught rhetoric, but later took to the study of medicine and 
he was the first practical physician whom Eome had seen. 
Uia healing system waa founded on the physiological 
doctrine of formless but divisible and changeable cor- 
puscuka, a doctrine which he adopted from Her.tclides 
oC Poiitus. Ue believed disease to arise from inhar- 
monious distribution of the corpuscules and obstruc- 
tions of the pores. He aeema to have been little ac- 
quainted with anatomy ; he had no exact notion of the 
difference between veins and arteries ; be waa unac- 
quainted with the uae of the nerves and ha confounded 
them with the ligaments, He b said to have been the 
first who divided diseases into acute and chronic and to 
have considered them essentially different. He observed 
the double tertian fever which waa so common iu Rome, 
and he dietiognished very accurately between the violent 
or febrile dropsy and the chronic form unaccompanied 
with fever. He was shrewd and observant, and his 
mode of treatment was no doubt often beneficial. He 
trusted more to dietetic means than to the nae of me- 
dicines, disapproved of the frequent uae of emetica and 
puTBCB, but be freely adopted the practice of bleeding. He 
ascribed great value to bathing and friction, recommended 
the free use of wine in many complaintp, and regarded 
laughter, music and singing as efficacious in many other 
ailments. The few fragments of his writings that have 
come down to oa were collected aud published in Germany 

DiODonrs ; PEDANrns noacosiDEs. 

in A.D. 1794. — Up to thiaphyaiciiio'a time there had been 
two sects or achools of mcdioiae, the dogmatic aud the 
piric. The dogmatiBtB were established byTheasaluB msA 
Draco, the sons, nnd Polybiua aon-in-law, of Hippocrati 
They maintained that the practice of physic niust depent 
on the theory, and that he who is ignorant of the origil 
of diseases cannot treat them with advsBtage. The bm 
of the dogmatici were eometimes called the Hippocratij 
school from professing to follow the doctrines of HippcW 
crates. The empirics on the othar hand held that tbf 
knowledge and practice of medicine depends od obetn- 
_Tative experience alone (i/wcipia) and that the pi^ 
sicianlike the farmer or the sailor is formed by prav 
tice Dot by discussion. The dograatiets studied aQato< 
my, tba empirics neglected it. The melhodica a tbiiA 
school was founded by Aaclepiades. Tn their views, they 
comprised something of the theoretical turn oltbedog' 
natics with the practical Bimplicity of the empirics, bat 
Themison one of their number, carried this Bimplicity too 
far. He arranged all diseases into three cUsBen, viz., the 
gtrielam, the laxwm and the mixtum, the last connaVAng ot 
the Btrictnm ia one part of the body and of the lasam ia 
another. He maintained that it was enough to refer 
any particular disease to one or other of these tbrea 
heads in order to form the proper indications of care. 
was from following this plan or method that the i 
received the appellation of Uethodics. 

B, C, 80 ? Diodorua, sumamed Siculna, a Ored: 
historian, waaborn at Argyrium in Sicily about B. C. SO, 
He WBB a great ttavelter, visiting a great part of £urop« 
and Asia to obtain information. He was in Egypt 6. C 
60, and he states that there were then physician specialiBta 
attending tn particular diseases. He mote the Hiatorieal 
Library which took him 30 years to complete. It wu 
written with the greatest fidelity, consisted of 40 books, 
of which 15 ate in existence with fragments of the other 
twenty-five. It contained the history of almost all nsr 

A. D. G3 1 Pedanius Dioscorides, » Greek phj- 

Bician, a uativa of Auazarbus in (Jilicin, who lived in tba 


early piit of the first century of the christian era &a iu 
his preface he meQtloiia Liciritus Eassus, wlio was codbuI 
it) A.D. 63, and he was probably a cud tempo rary of PUcy. 
H'e perhaps studied at Tarsus. He ia the most 
Anaient nutboc who has written espreasly, at the same 
time he has done bo most fully, on Materia Medica. la 
Lis love for this brniiuli he travelled into many countries ; 
he visited Alexandria and tlie north of Africa, also Spain, 
France and Itily, and he followed the Roman armies foe 
its investigation. His work is in five books, mostly ou 
vegetable medicines. He ia particular in giving the eyoo- 
nymea uf drugs and in describing the physical jiroperties 
nith their medical uses, and ia particular in specifying 
the countries where they neie severally produced. Two 
other works are attributed to him, the AJexipharmaca, 
tjpating on the poisons in the mineral, vegetable and 
animal Idaj^doma and their antidotes, the other book 
called the Suporista, treats of remedies that are easily 
procured. His hooka were published at Frankfort A. D. 
159S, and a commentary by MatthioluB at Venice A. D. 

B.C.?— A.D. 38. Aarelius CorneUus Cel- 

BlISj 3 philosopher of Rome, lived at tiie time of the birth 
of Christ and flourished duiing the reign of the emperor 
Tiberius. He was the author of many books, on Medicine, 
Rhetoric, Agriculture and Military affairs, all of which 
have been lost except the treatise on medicine and soma 
fragments of a work on rhetoric. He does not appear to 
have practiced medicine but only to have studied it as 
a branch of philosophy. His work on Medicine consists 
of eight chapters ; ( I ), a brief history of the art and of the 
regimen for different constitutions ; (2), prognosis and 
diet ; (3), dietetic treatment of disease ; (4), treatment of 
partial diseases ; (5), medicines and the diseases for which 
they are applicable ; (6), the medicinal treatment of local 
diaeaaea ; (7), surgical operations ; (8), bones, their dia- 
eaaea, fractures and dislocations. Hippocrates and Aacle- 
piades are the authors whom Celaua chiefly follows. In 
his time thrse schoola of medicine were iu vogue, the em- 
piric, dogmatic and methodic, but he treated all with 
impartiality. He advocated bleeding more fiequently 

rl^ ' 
tban Hippncrntes, diectiuraged ezceGaive purgation and 
loweringof the Bystein,aiid encouraged friction, baths and 
fomentation. The made of opeFsting for the stone 
descTibed by Celsaawits long advocated and in Franca 
was followed bo late as the year 1700. His work alsa< 
notioes the operAtiou for cataract with the needle, t' 
two-fold operation for goitre by caustic and e^ctirpatlnn^ 
tapping for dropsy, restoration of the prepuce in 
circumoiEed ; employment of the catheter ; delivery, by 
the hand, of n dead child ; the treatment of fractuns 
and dialocationa ; his anatomical details show a wonderful 
amount of knowledge. It is the moat valnable book 
of the kind that the Bomans have left ua, It does 
appear to have become known to the Arab races norta' 
thehindufi, although in Europe eighty editions of it havo' 
been printed and it has been translated into most of th^ 
western languages. The flrst printed edition of his eigBF 
books De Medicina appeared in 147S at Florence, bat 
up to 1785 more than 59 editions had heai pat forth 
and a quarto edition at Verona in 1810. 

A. D. 131— IQl 1 Claudius GalenUB, generally 
known asQalen, was one of the most celebrated of the an- 
cient medical writers. He was born at PergamuB in Asia 
Minor A. D. 131, and is supposed to have died about A. D.' 
301 or 200. After obtaining a most liberal education, 
studying the doctrines of Aristotle and Plato, be applied 
himself to the study of medicines. His anatomical and 
medical studies were commenced under Satyrus, a cele- 
brated anatomist, Stratonicus a disciple of theHippocratio 
Bchool, and .^sckrion, a follower of the empirics. After 
the death of his father he visited Alesandria, at that time 
the most famous achool of medicine in the world, but being 
pablicly invited he returned to hia country, and, at the age 
of 34 he repaired to Rome. His great anatomical know- 
ledge made him fumuua and he began a course of lectares 
which, however, the jealousy of hia con temporaries caiiaed 
to be diiicontinued and he left Kome. He then travslted, 
but after a year he was invited to Aquileia by the em- 
perors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius VeruB, and it wu 
at tliia time he wrote his Theriaca, taking his Materia 
Uedica almost entirely from Dioscorides. He treated the 



CLiUBIDS GiLEKtrs. 29 

a of tLe Beveral bcIiooIs of medical ptiloBOphy with 
no meaBured contempt. The school fouuded bj himself 
may be cnlled tho Eclectic, because his doctrines had a 
mixture of the philosophy of Plato, of the physics and 
logic oE Aristotle, nud the practical knowledge of Hippo- 
crates. Anatomy was at all times his fnvorite pursuit, 
but his dissectious were chiefly of apes and other aoimala, 
from which he formed some erroneous coBclaaious. After 
the exam[>le of Aristotle and before him Plato in tho 
Timsus, he admitted four elements, from the admixture 
of which ha deduced secondary qualities. He held that 
the iojurious influences to which animal bodies are liable, 
are of two kinds, — innate oi necessary and acquired. The 
former depend on their original constitution. They are 
formed of two suhstances, — the hlood, which is tho mate- 
rial ; aud the semen, the formative principle. These are 
composed of the same general elements, — hot, cold, moist 
and dry, or to express them in their essences instead of 
their qualities, — fire, air, water and earth. Their differ- 
ences depend on the proportions in which these elements 
enter into their composition. Health, he considered, con- 
sists in the perfect and harmonious admixture of these 
various elements, and disease depends on some dispropor- 
tion iu the constituent elements, or some unnatural condi- 
tion of the organs. He divided the causes of disease into 
occasional and pre-diaposing. The pre-diaposing are consi- 
dered to depend upon some degeueiatiou of the humours, 
called by him a putrefaction. Thus, the quotidian fever 
is referred by him to a putrefaction of the mucus ; tertian 
to that of the yellow bile, and quartan to that of the 
black bile. It was upon this theory of the putrefaction of 
the hmnonrs that the practice of the hnmoural patliolo- 
pistB was founded aud for centuries after the death of 
Galen the remedies were directed to the expulaioa 
of the ofTeudini! matter. He left few good descriptions 
of diseaBCi He is said to Lave occasionally performed 
surgical operations, bat while in Rome commonly refused 
to do this in compliance with the custom of the Eomaii 
physicians. The unbounded influence exercised by this 
great man throughout Europe and among the Arabs, un- 
quoBtionablj contributed to retard the progresa of meii- 
cine, notil liually iu the 15th century liis works were pub- 



licly burnt by ParacelauB. He was a volurainona writer, 
and 137 of hia treatiaea are still extant but IGO have 
beea lost. Be ahu wrote cummeotariea on the dialectics 
of the poet Chrj'sippus. Five Latin editions of his works 
were published before the Greek text. 

A. D. 531 1—579 1 BarzuyElh, aleamed physiciu 
who had made moie than one journey to lodis, bat in the 
reigu of Nouaherwan, kiag of Persia, made two specisl 
journeys, the first time, to procure mediciaes and parti- 
cularly herbs, but oa the aeoond occaaicm to collect copiM 
of the literature of the hindus. On bis return from ths 
last, he, or a learned man named Buzurjmeher (they aeeu 
to have been the same) translated into Fersiau all th> 
Sanskrit votka he had obtained. 

A. D. 713—833. Abbassi or Abbasides, *a 

Arab dynasty of dietinguiahed origin, who ruled aa kbalila 
from A. D. 749 to 1359. They were desceudaiita from 
Abbas-ibn-Abid-ul'Mutalib, a paternal uncla of Uuham- 
mad, and in A. D. 750 one uf his deaceodanta o^erlbrevi 
the last TJmmiad khalif and succeeded to the kha\i£at 
at Xufa, under the designation of Us-Saffab, the blood- 
ehedder. Hia auccessnr At-Mansur, the 3nd khalif 
of the house of Abbas was bora at Homaima in Syria 
A. D. 713. Heaucceeded liis brother Ua-Saffah A. D. 
753. He laid the foundation of the town of Baghdad 
and died A. D. 776. During his reign, he established 
Echoola of medicine and law, he gave much of hia time 
to the study and advancement of aatronomy, tranalations 
were commenced of the works of the ancient Greek 
writers on metaphysics, mathematics, astronomy and 
medicine, and the first known lunatic asylum is said 
to have bei^n established by him. Mis grandaou was 
Harun-nr-Raahid known throughout the world for his 
valour, hia general love of justice, his zeal for literature 
and the arts, and hia encouragement of commerce. He 
ruled from A. D. 786 till A. D. 808. He placed all 
public ecbouls under John Mesue, a Neatoriau chriatian. 
Maiiik and Saleb, two hinilu medical men, were persoual 
physiciaiia attlie court of Harun-ur-Roshid, and Manik 
translated into Persian from the Sanskrit a treatise on 


poiaoiiB. Mamnn hia bod, after a. brief contest buc- 
ceeded to the klinlifat and the 20 years of Lie reigu 
from A. D. 813 to 333 formed an important epuch in the 
Iiiatory of acience aad literature. He fouoded colleges and 
libraries nt Baghdad, Kufs, Basra and Neahabur. He 
bnilt obaervatocies, Synau phyeiciaas and Hindu mathe- 
maticittna and astronomers Jived at bis ooart, and wnrka 
on astronomy, mathematics, metaphysics, natural philo- 
sophy and medicine were translated from the Sanskrit 
and Greek into Arabic. The brief period of 47 years of 
the reigna of Harun-ut-Raahid and hia aou Ul-Mamun, 
was a period of great prosperity, but that of Ul-Mamun 
was the Au(;uetan age. The Arnba were avowed borrowers 
iu science. They were chiefly indebted to the hindus and 
the Greeks, but they are entitled to tbe gratitude of the 
world iot having kept alive and dilfuaed the light of 
letters, and for having formed a connecting link with 
classical antiquity during an age when acience and liter- 
ature in Europe lay buried under ignoranceaud barhariam . 
The ptaclica so largely followed in the time of the 
Abbassi khalifa o£ tranalatiug and writing commentariea 
on the worka of previous authors was injurious to origi- 
nality cir progresn, and it is now diJBculc to distinguish 
what are the authors', and what the comoieutatore' parts. 
An instance of this may be given in the history of a 
medical book written by Ns-jh-ud-Diu Muhammad Umar 
(if Saioarkand, who wrote iu Arabic the Asbab-wa-Ilamar, 
a very celebrated treatiiie on the causes, signs and 
remedies of diseasea. Subsequently Nafis-bio-Iwaz wrote 
a commentary on it in Arabic, which he styled Sharbnl- 
Asbabwa-Ilamat and dedicated it to Timur's grandauu 
Mirzn Muhammad Tarpai, generally known as U!ugh 
lieg (born 1394, killed ljl49}, and in the reign of the 
emperor Aurungzeb, hia physician, the hakioi Alnham- 
mad Akbar Arznni, translated the Arabic Sharh<nl-.ABbab 
into Persian, designated it the Tibb-i-Akhari and dedicat- 
ed it to Aurungzeb (born 1618, died 1707), Avicemia'a 
works been similarly dealt with, 

A. D. 6 13 t John Mesue, a learned man of Damas- 
cus, was employed by Ul-ilamun, while governor of 
KboraBan. L'l-Uamuu had gathered around him there 




learuGd men from all coantriBS and formed them into S' 
College over which Juhn Meaue presided, and on sacceed- 
iug to tbe khalifat ou the demise of hia father Uaran-or-' 
Eashid, he employed them in translating the works d 
Ariatotle, Enelid, Ptolemy, Hippocrates aud Dit)scotide&. 
SuriDg these two reigns, Grecian science and a kaowledg|[ 
of the healing art as had been taught in Europe 
made known to that part of the eastern world. 

A. D.— !— 993 or 932. RhazeS or Razes, as bnown 
to Western Europe, was a famous jihysician of Aribi*, 
hia name being Muhammad bin Zakaria Abu Bagr u 
Bazi. He was born and brought up at Rai ia Ink> 
Ajami, now designated Turkish Arabia, He acquired great' 
philological and philosaphiciil kao^-ledge, but uatil ly 
was 30 years old he was chiefly known as a musiciaa, 
elngiug to the guitar. A.fter his 40th year he applied 
himself exclusively to the etudy of medicine and pbilo- 
Bophy, and he Btudied under Ibn Zaiu ul Tabari at Bagb- 
dad. He became the medical superintendent of an hospital 
at Bai and subsequently of one at Baghdnd. He ttaveUed 
to Jernsalem and Africa, and it is said also to Spnia. Hia 
works were more than two hundred, the mnat celebrated 
being on smail-pox and on measles under the deFignatioai 
Eitab uL Manauri. He dedicated ten books to Manaur, ft 
piince of Ehnrasan, nephew of khalif M ohtafi, on 
anatomy, physiology, temperaments, diet and regimen, 
the preservation of iiealtb, surgery, poisons, the cute at 
diaeases and fevers. These were chiefly compilatiotu 
from the writings of Galen, Oribaaius, Paulus ^gini 
and Aetius. He was nut the first to write on the small-p 
HediedA. D. 923 or 932 at Rai or Baghdad. Hia work* 
were translated into Eugiiah by Dr. Meade in A. D. 174Ti 
bat all his works had been published in folio in A. Dj 
151C. It was about his time, between A. D. 905 — 920 
that the first Medical College in Europe was founded b; 
tbe Saracens at Salerno in Italy. Tbe first aetronomica 
Observatory was that erected by them at Seville in Spain 
Tbe University of Salerno, probably the moat ancient il 
£uropa was, in 1S17, replaced by the Lyceum, 

A. D. 890— 932. John Serapion, known tohii 

ootemporai'iea as Yahia-ibn-Serapion-bin-lbrftliini, was a 
Syrian ptijsician who Beeina to have lived about A. D. 890 
— 933 1 Two works bearing Ha name were translated into 
Latin iind pablished ia Venice in 1497, He collected all 
that had beea written by the Greek and Arabian phyai- 
ciana on the treatment of disesBea. Dr. Sprengel in liia 
History of Medicine Itas noticed his opinions. Another 
of the phf eiciana who had the name of Serapion, was of 
Alexandria aud lived about the 5th century of the 
Christian era. 

A. D, 980—1037. Avicenna : the lull appellation 
of this learned physician was Abu Ali-ul-Huseain-ibu- 
AbduUab-ibn-Sina, but lie nas known to the Arabian 
doctors as ua-Shaikb, also ur-Raes — Titerally, the chief, 
and the prince. He was born A, D. 080 at Kharmatian 
(alao said to be at Asaena) a village near Bokhara and 
was educated at Bokhara. He studied under Abu Abdal- 
lah-ul-Natheli. He was eminent aa a pliiloBopher and 
a phyaician and his name raled in the realm of medical 
science (or a longer period than any other writers except 
Aristotle and Galen. In his 21st year he wrote a book 
which he called Al-kitab-al-Mejmua, a Cyclopedia of 20 
volumes and he Gubseqnently compiled a commentary of 
it which alao extended to 20 volumes. In the beginning 
of tho 11th century, the Samauide dynasty fell, on which 
Avicenna quitted Bokhara ; for a short time he served at 
the court of the Dilimite sovereign, but in 1012 retired to 
Jorjan wbero he began to write his cdebrated treatise on 
the principles of medicine styled Kitab-ul-Qanun fi't 
Tibb, &c,, oi Book on the Principles of Medicine. He sub- 
sequently lived for n short time at Rai, Kazwin, Hamadan, 
and Ispahan. Ibn Khalican states that his books and trea- 
tises numbered about 100. The Qanun was the most cele- 
brated and is well known in Europe under the title of 
The Canons of Avicenna. It contains five books, viz. - 
(l),on the theory and practice of medicine ; (3), on the pro- 
parties of simple medicines ; (3), on anatomy and local 
diaeases ; (4), on diseases generally ; and (5), on compound- 
ed medicines. His boolu were printed in Arabic at 
Rome 1407, but more than one Latin version has 
appeared, the latest being that of Vopuciaa Foitana- 


tua A. D. 1651. The Qanun was first priDted at Rf.m 
1595 : it was translated into Latin and publiahec 
kt Venice, 160S ; and it became even in Europe for n 
centurieB the moat celebrated authority in medical ecieuw 
chiefiy on Bcconot of its judiciocs arrangement and of tt 
comptehensiTG view it afforded of- the opiniona oftt 
ancient Greek phyBiciaus. Several editions of the Qftnn 
have appeared. His other works are about 1 00 in numbf' 
amongst them Us-Shafa, Shafa fi'l-Hikmat, Kajat, and Id 
arat, Hedied while on ajouruey at Haiuadau A.D. 10^ 
at the comparatively early age of 57. The Qanuu or Bnlfli' 
continue up to the present day to be used in all tht 
eountries where Arabic is known. It has also had leaniedl 
anuotatora and cammeutators, whose books are in esi 
Ala ud DIa Ali fain Abul Hazim ul Kureiahi iba NaSc 
who died A. D. 1283, wrote in Arabic an epitome of tha 
Qanao. of Avicenna, which he styled Alajiz ul Qanuo S't 
Tibb, and subsequently, about A.D. 1430, Nafis bio Iwax 
who resided at the court of Timur's grandson Uliigh Beg 
wrote in Arabic the Hull-i-MujIz-uI-Qaiiun, a book of an* 
notations on the commentary of Ala ud Diu Mi and again 
the Sharh Nafisi a commentary on his own anaotationa. 
Subsequently Sadid ud Bin Gazeruni, wrote ul-Moghni fi 
SharahulMujie a commentary on the Mtijiz of Ala nil 
Din All, but iu which was ct>mprised a compendium o" 
medical science compiled from the works of Hippos 
crates, Galen, Avicenna, Honain,Al-Razi and others. 

A. D. 1072-3— 11G2; 1114—1193. Avanzoar,, 
properly Ibn Zohar, the name of two distinguiGhed An 
biao physicians, father and son, who flourished in Spail 
daring the 12th century. They were Jews by descent and 
profession. The father was born at Seville about A. D* 
1072-3 and died there A. J>. 1162. He was phyeioi 
at the court of Cordova and had charge of an hospital; 
He wrote several medical works in Arabic, some <h 
which were rendered into Hebrew and into Latin. 
The celebrated work of the father designated thi 
Tasir is one of the most valuable buoka of thi 
Arabian physicians, It contained a compendium ol 
medical practice, including many facts and observation! 
not fouad in preceding writers. He did less to add tc 


the theories thsn to improve the practice of raedieine and 
he nas a declared enemy of anphismB and dialectic 
subtleties. He trusted largely to his experience. He alao 
wrote on Calealiis and on regimen. He was the teacher 
of Averrhoea. His Bon aho (A. D. I ] 14—1199) wrote 
several medical works, amongst tbeiu one on diseases of 
the eyes. He died at Morocco, 1199. 

A. D. 1149 — 1193. AverrhoeSjfenown to his con- 
temporaries as Abul Wahid Muhurainad-ibii-Ahmad-ibn- 
Muhammad ibu Rashid, a piiilosnpher and physician of 
great eminence, was born at Cordova about A. D. 
1149 and died 119S. He studied under Avanzoar, but 
other of the most distinguiiihed Arabian Gchnlars of the 
age are mentioned as his teachers, Uia treatises were 
78 iu number, many of them were early translated into 
Latin. Hia medical works were gathered together as the 
"Kulliat," translated into Latin and have been repeat- 
edly printed along with the Tasir of Avanzoar. He 
followed largely Aristotle's system of reasoning by induc- 
tion, and was an enthusiastic admirer oE that great man, 
on whose works be wrote commentaries, and carrying the 
Aristoletian mode of reasoning into ihe religions doctrines 
<]f mnhammadaniara, he became nbaosious to his contem- 
poraries, became once or twice the victim of per«ecutinn 
and was compelled to avow a change in his opinions. He 
wrote an epitome of Ptolemy's Almagest and a treatise 
on Astrolof;y. 

A, D. 1200? Ubhatta of Kashmir, author of a 
commentary on Snahruta, hia epoch ia supposed to be the 
l2th or 13tli century of the Christian era. 

. D. 1226-1286. Gregory Abul Faragius, 

moiily designated Abul-Farag, but properly Mar 
Gregorius Abul-Faraj also called Gregoriua Bar-niebreuB, 
was of the Armenian race, born A. D. 1326 at Malatia, 
or Melite a town near the western bank of the Euphrates 
in Lesser Asia. His father Aaron was a physician. Abul- 
Farag studied theology, philosophy and medicine, and 
passed the greater part of his life in Syria. He adopted 
Christianity and rose aacceBBiveJy to be Bishop of Giiba, 



Bishop of Aleppo, and in 1266 Primate of alt the Jacobita 
Christians in the East. He was the author of a great 
iiumbec of works which he wrote in Arabic and Syriac, 
bat the best known is his history of the dynasties, from 
the Hebrew Patriarchs to tke Moshuls, He ditd io 
A. D. 1286 at Meragba in Azerbijan. Dr. Pococte 
published his History of the Dyiiasiiaa in 1663 with» 
Latin translation and a supplement. 

13th Century? Babhata, a hindu physician, 31 
compiled a medical work principally from the writin^rf' 
Cbaraka and Susruta. He named it Asht-anga Hin- 
dayani. His manner of treating the subjects and ihe 
armngemeuts are much the same aa that followed by 
Charaka. It is written la a clear style, and Babhata ex- 
plains passages in the original works which were not 
before understood. This seems to be the same fiersou 
spokea of by Professor Hoyle under the name af Ub 'batca 
anativeof Kashmir as having written b eommaattrf ti 
Charaka, His era is not known, bnt ia pmbftbly of t" 
12th or lath century, 

14471 Najab-ucl-Dm Muhammad 'Omar ot 

Samarkand, whose era is not known, wrote the Asbab wn 
IlamSit, a very celebrated treatise in Arabic, on the 
causes, signs and remedies of disease. A commentan 
of it, also in Arabic, entitled Sbarh-ul-Usbab wa Ilamat 
was made by Nafis-bin-Iwaz and dedicated to Timur's 
grandson, sultan Ulugh Beg, who ruled at Samarkand 
from his early youth up to A, D, 1447 when he BUeuetd- 
ed to the throne of his father Shah Rukh. A transUtiou 
in Persiaa of the Sharh-ul-Ashab was made by Muham- 
mad Akbar-Arzani physician to the emperor Aumngz^b. 
(A. D. 165S— 1707) to wliom it was dedicated. The 
irauslalion is named the Tibb-i-Akbari. 

A. D, 1-500? Li-shi-chin, The old medical writers 
of China were the naturalists of their times and that 
country had a long line of imperial, princely and ma^ 
terial nbsersera in medical matters, the ancient Shin- 
nuttg, Hwang-ti, Chi-peb, Lu-pien, Li-taug-chi, Hv»j 
Wang-shuh, and Li-ahi-chin. 



Tlie Rh-ya is a Oyclopfedia of natural and general ob- 
jects and matters, dating from a very early period. Up 
to the time of Li-ahi-cliiii, a District Mapstrate, who was 
born at tie town of K'i-Chau on the right bank o£ the 
Yang-tsze river, there had been published thirty-nine 
books on Materia Medica, containing the observations o£ 
some eight hundred authors, beginning with the mythi- 
cal emperor Shin-nung. Li-shi-chin re-arranged the 1518 
drugs recommended by those writers, adding 374 new 
remedies of his own suggestion. There are 251 of these 
substances the nature and uses of which are not 
thoroughly understood. He named his book Pen-ts'.au- 
Kang-Miih, it was arranged in fi2 chapters, and contaioed 
11,896 formnlre. On the death of the author, his son 
presented his father's book to the Ming emperor Wan-leh 
and it was published about 1597. It was the work of 
his father's life, occupying him forty years and, as ita 
name designates it, is a synopsis of ancient herbals, 1 ,Ot)G 
of the 1,518 drugs described in it belonging to the vege- 
table kingdom. These snbstances are arranged in 62 
^reat classes, under the sixteen orders, water, fire, earths, 
minerals and metals, herbs, grain and pube, vegetables, 
fruits, trees, garments and utensils, insects, scaly animals, 
mailed and shelly creatures, birds, beasts and taan. 

Some of these divisions contain non-conformable ge- 
nera, but this early attempt at classification has been 
favorably noticed by Bemusat. One of the first great 
classes are formed of the five elements, or factors, which, 
according to Chinese philosophy enter into the composi- 
tion of all things. Under each of the substances, about 
1,641 in number, the synonymes are collated and cor- 
rected, and their names esplained as to their origin, 
sound and sense. Sanskrit, Tungusic and other syno- 
nymes are often (liven in the form of Chinese IransUter- 
ations of jjreat interest, as representing the languages and 
dialects of ancient peoples. The source, form and general 
history of e.ich drug are then given, and its collection ok 
manafacture for use as a drug is followed by directions 
as to its preservation and treatment for the purposes of 
the druggist. The nature and properties are then briefly 
described and a sketch given of the therapeutical uses .1.1 
indicated geuerally by various authoritative writers. 

1 rr 



Solntious of doabta and diBcnssiocs of the antipatliiea ' 
vt the medicines are succeeded by a host of formnla, 
The original edition of thia Toluminous work, which b 
bound in 3S volames, is now very scMce but it has been 
four times re-printed. The firat Manchu emperor Shnn- 
chi, was a great patron of the work and the last regular 
re-print was published in 1826, the sixth year of the reign 
of the emperor Tau-fang. Another book of use among " 
Chinese medical men, is the Kwang-K'iitn-fnng-p'u : 
is n botanical thesaurus of the time of the Ming Ayatttf 
le-publiahed in 1708, but the largest amount of ChioM 
original matter has been taken from the Pen-ts'air 
Kang-muh of Li-ehi-chin noticed above. The good seu 
of Li-shi-chin to a great eitent purged the pag^s of h^ 
Cycloptedia, the Pen-Ta'au, of nonsensical or disgustiftC 
things. In the present day, as a rule, Chinese docton 
employ few mineral or metallic substances in the treat* 
nent of internal disease. Doctors of repntation an 
above all tricks, but humbler practitiooere not unfrv' 
qnently connteuance incantations ; but to teach all of 
them tjie rational uses of mercurial and ferrogiiiona Re- 
parations should be one of the first aims of those viho 
would atiiTe to reform the practice of the native medical 
profession of China. It may be added that muiy of the 
drugs in use in India are known in or exported to China 
knd similarly the drugs of China are largely ex[iort«d t 

1509 — 1591). Ambrose Pare' was bom io A. I 

1500, at Laval in France iu the province of Mayena^ 
and died in 1590 at the age of Si. He is justly cOBr. 
sidered by French sargeous to be the father of modetlti 
surgery and to hold the same rank iu this brandl 
of the profession as Hippocrates does in medicines 
He made several important changes in the practice ot 
surgery which have been followed to the present day. 
One of his greatest reforms was in the treatment of gna- 
shot wounds, into which it was the custom at that lime ta 
pour boiling oil : he was also the first person to leave c 
the barbaruuB practice of cauterising a limb to stop tha 
hemorrhage after an amputation : he teatored the prse- 
I tace of tying blood-vessels after operations and gsva 



excellent rulea for operating. He was the first who 
ended the extraction o£ the ftettia by the feet 
of difficult Uboar. He wrote twenty-eight books 
chieljy on auntomy and pLyaiology. He waa saved from 
the massacre of Bt. Bartholumew by the kiug of FraDce 
keeping hiru in bia ona bedroom. He naa eucceseively 
surgeon to Henry II, Francis II, Charles IX ; aud 
Henry III of France. 

A. D, ISflO? Bhava or Babo, author of theEabo 

PtakasB, a hiuda [>h;Bician who lived about tbe middle 
of the 16th century. He compiled a book for the use of 
practitioners in nbich he gave a suiomary of the 
practice of all the best writers on mediciue. He named 
the bouk after himself. It is written in a clear style 
and is esteemed by hiuda medical men, as it gives an 
ezcellent aoconnt of all the practical parts of hiudu 
medical science. By its clearness and the excellence of 
its aErangement many difHcultiea met with iu the older 
medical ahaetras are elucidated,. 

A. D. 1678— IC57. William Harvev was born 

at Folkentone, lat or 3ud AprU 1578. In 1593 he entered 
Cuius College, Cambridge, and then went abroad, visiting 
France and Germany and studying at Padua uader Fabri- 
ciua for anatomy, and iu 1602 took there the Doctor's de- 
gree. On returning to England he was, in 1G07, elected a 
Fellow of tbe College of Physiciaiia and appointed physi- 
cian to St. Barthoiomew's Hospital. On the 1th August 
1615 he was chosen bjlheCollage to deliver the Lumleian 
lectures on Anatomy aud Sorgery, and on this oooasioa 
he is supposed to have first brought forward his views 
as to the circulation of the bloud which he afterwards 
more fully established and published in 1G28 in the trea- 
tise entitled Eiercitatio Anatomica do motu cordis et san- 
guinis in Animalibns. Harvey was led to this discovery 
by reasoning as to tbe possible uses of the valves in the 
veins. Until Uis time, the opinions as to the uses of the 
veins and arteries were various : the veins were supposed 
to distribute the blood to tbe body aud tbe arteries to 
oitovey the vital apirits. But Harvey ascertained 
that tha heart in contracting forced the blood along the 





arteries and received it back agoia by tlie veins, 
the greatest and moBt origiual discovery in physiology^ 
yet no physician above forty years of age accepted tl 
doGtriue, althoagh on its complete recoguttiuo others ' 
Europe laid cUim to the discnvery. Harvey's right to 
discovery, however, has tang Eince been acknowledged, Ht 
also wrote oQ reprodoctioi). All bis writings were in Lat' 
and the London College of physiciaoa in 1766, pnblial 
an edition of bis works wbicb were written in correal' 
aad elegant language. In 1632 he was appointed physiciat 
to King Jaines I, and in 1632 to Charles I, whom In 
attended nt the battle of Ertgehi)l ; in 1645 be was chosak 
■Warden of Merton College, Oxford, but when the Parli»i 
mentary visitors came there he left it for London whei 
he was chosen president of the College, but declined tha 
office on accoant of his infirmities. He died at Hemp> 
itead in Essex on tha 3rd June 1637, at the age of 79, 
leaving hi') paternal estate of £66 a year to the Collet 
for wbicb he had built a library and mDeeooi.- L 
Lawrence published a splendid edition of bis life In oi 

A. D. 1624— 1G89. Thomas Sydenham waa 

one of the most distinguisbed of English phyeiciai 
He was born at Winford Eagle in Dorsetshire A. D,- 
1624. In 1648 he took his degree of Bachelor of Medicirw 
at Oxford. He afterwards studied at MontpelUer, then^ 
the seat of a famous Medical School, finally became 1 
Doctor of Medicine of Cambridge and settled as a Licen- 
tiate of the College of Physicians at Westminster i 
London where he soon rose to the top of his profeseioiU 
In bia practice he carefully noted the symptoms of diseaet^ 
and applied himself to questioning nature herself — f onndi 
jng his praciioe on the obvious indications of nature rathM 
tliiin on prevalent theories — ^justly thinking that thoagU 
the practice of physic may seem to flow from bypoHiese* 
jret, if the hypotheses are solid and true, they in soma 
measure owe their origin to practice. Be had a singalu 
talent fur observation and the ^lictures be has drawn ol 
diseases are so accurate that in many inttancea it would 
not be possible to improve them. He wrote a work c 
terers in 1666, and other books. The improvements h« 



introduced form an era in the hietory of medicine. Febrile 
diaeasca attracted bia special attention, he was the first who 
introduced the cool regimen in the treatment of Bmall- 
pox atid his writiogB on conBnmptiiin, fevera and nervous 
diseaaea though brief, are etill held in eKtitnation. In later 
life he suffered greatlj from gout and died in Ijoudoii oa 
the 29th December 16SEI at the age of G5. His published 
nritiogs are On the method of curing fevers based on ac- 
curate observation, which was reprinted ill 1675, under the 
title of Medical Obaervations ou the history and treatment 
of acute diseaaea, also, Epistolffi Beapcnaori^ duie, de 
Morbia Epidemicis, 1675 aud 1680; De Luis Venerea 
HiatoriaetCuratiouelfiSO; De FodugraetHydrope 1663, 
and after hi^ deith there appeared Procesdus integri in 
morbia fere omnibua curaudia. 

A. D, 1C28. Muhammad Yakub bin Yusuf, 

physician to Shah Jab an, author of the AKaz ul Adwiab, 
a work in the FerBian language tranalated by Mr. Gladwin 
in A. D. 1793. 

A. D. 1628-1694. MarceUo MaJphigi, an 

eminent Italian physician and anatomist, nas born A. D. 
1638, near Bologna where he atudied medicine and in 
1 663 received a Doctor'a degree. Three years afterwarda 
lie obtained the medical chair which lie shortly after 
resigned in order to take np a similar office at Fiaa. He 
subsequently, from 1660, resided for intervals at Bologna, 
Mesaiua and Home, and died in 1694 at the last named 
place. He published many booka which passed through 
aeveral editions, and hia works were reprinted in London 
in 1607, and again in the following year at Amsterdam. 
He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of 
London in 16U9, and in 1691 Pope Innocent XII called 
Iiim to Rome appointing him his physician, chamberlain 
and domestic prelate. He was the first to examine the 
circulation wilh the microscope, but is now chiefly remem- 
bered on account of his discoveries of the anatomy of the 
skin and uf the secreting glands. Hia works have been 
often published. Altliough Malphigi's writings are not 
free from errors, yet he contributed much to the progress 
of physiology and he deserves a place among discoverers. 



A. D, 166S— 1738. Hermann Boerhaaw 

was born on tie Slst December 1CG8 at Voorbont I 
Tillage twu miles from Leyden. In 16S3 he was e 
to study at Layden, at first for the ministry, but whrn 
22 ye>irs of aga lie commenced the study of medicioe an 
in 1693 he took at Warderwijk' tlie de^ee of Doctor a 
Physic and then adopted the medical profeasioD. 
1701 he was ajipointed Piofeesor of the Institute li 
Medicine, and in his diaeertation he euthusiaBtic&lly di' 
scribed the method of study pursued by HippocralM 
In 1709 thechairof the Professor of Botany was confemd 
on him, andsubsequeutif, in 1713, he was elected FiO^ 
fesBor of Cheojistry, and in 1714 he was chosen Rectal 
of the University. Hia views varied. In 1703, i 
dissertation "Do usu ratiocinii Mechanic! in Medieina,"] 
left the Hippocratic method of simple observation and 
put forward a mechanical theory of the globoles of tha 
animal fluids, so that in the treatmeot of disease (&» 
efforts of the physician were to be direcEsd to restore a 
mechauical equilibrium. He aIbo supposed many morbid 
phenomena to arise from acrimony of the bloiid wtidi 
it was the basinesa of the physician to nentraliae. ThiB 
part of his doctrines ia called the Humoral pBlbologf, 
which has always kept a hold on popular belief. Sub- 
sequently, in 170!), he wrote anotherdissertatioti Oratic 
qua repurgat^e medicin93 facilis asseritur simplicita 
which deserves to be placed by the aide of those in wLiol 
he recommends the atudy of Hippocrates. He wrote si 
ral easaya and books, using the Latin language, ' 
they have been translated into many of the Enropi 
tongues and some into Arabic ; alag hia Institutions a 
Medicine (1708), and Aphorisms (1709). During hia liJ 
hia fame was wide-spread. He was elected a member 
the Academy of Sciences at Paris and of the Roji 
. Society of London, He was the most diatinguished phj 
Bician of his a^e. He died at Leyden after a liugeri 
illness on the 23rd September 1738. 

1686—1779. JussieU-— There were three brothers 
this name, Antony de JuasieUj Bernard de Juasieu 
Joseph de Juaaieu, all of them botaniats, and natives 
Lyons, a town in France. Antony de Jusaieu, born 16i" 


died in 1756, aged 73 years, much lameDted on nccount of 
his philantLropy. Hehadmadeabotauioaltour and brought 
from S[)aiii Bnd other European countries a large coilec- 
tion of plants and afterwards wrote on eubjecta connected 
with Natural History, Botany, Mineralogy aod Medicine. 
He was author of a. discourse on the progress of fiotany. 
He also wrote the appendix to Tonmefoct'e Institations of 
Botany and abridged Burrelier's work npon the plaots of 
France, Spaio and Italy. His younger brother, Bernard de 
Jassieu, born in 1890, was appointed Professor of Botany 
in the Royal Botanical Oarden. Hepnt forthinlT25 anew 
edition of Tonrnefort'a History of plantain the neighbour- 
hood of Paris. He was long employed in constructing a sya- 
tematic dirision of the vegetable kingdom. He died ia 
1777, aged 79. Cuvier described him aa the most modest, 
and perhaps the most prufouod botaoist of the eighteenth 
century, who, altboDgh he Bcaroely publiahed anything, ia 
neverthelees the inspiring genius of modern botanists, 
Joseph de Jussieu born 1704, died 1779 ; a good natu- 
mliet, physician and engineer, accompanied Condamiue to 
Peru in 173S, and published a journal of bia voyage. The 
men who have been distinguished as practical botanists in 
the East Indies, are Kottler, van Rheede, Eoenig, Ror- 
bnrgb, Wallich, Heyne, Wight, Royle, Griffiths, Hooker, 
Thomson, Stewart, Beddome and Jerdon. They lived 
during the eighteenth and nineteenth ceaturies. 

1688—1753. William Cheselden, a diatia- 

gnished English anatomiet and surgeon, Was bom in 
Leicestershire in 1C88. He studied in London, and in 
1711 began to lecture on Anatomy, was eubaequently 
elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and contributed 
several interesting papers to the Philosophical Transac- 
tioDB. In 171') he published a standard work on Ana- 
tomy, an eleventh edition of which was printed in 
1778. He oontinned to lecture for twenty years. He 
wag successively surgeon to St. Thomas' Hospital, and 
afterwards appointed Consulting Surgeon to St. George's 
and the Westminster Hospitals. He was a dexterous 
and SDCceeaful operator and invented the lateral mode of 
operating fnr lithotomy which ia followed at the present 
day. Xn 1733 he published his "Osteography" a work 


on the anatomy oE Ihe human bones, which he dedicated 
to QiiMQ Caniline, to whom he held the appointment o( 
surgeon. In 1737 he left Loudon to ba surgeon of 
ChelBea Hospital, and be held this appointment till be 
died of a second attack of apoplexy at Bath on the lOtb 
April 1752. Ab a Uthotomiat he was famuus, and out of 
42 patients whom he cut for atone in four years he loEt 
only one. 

A, D, 1697—1767. Monro, three anatomists rf 

this name, grandfather, son and grandson, or as the iMt 
was accustomed to speak of them, Primus, Secondus, Tei- 
tiua, were lecturers on Anatomy in Edintiurgh, Dr. 
Alexander Monro, M,D., the first of the three, was born 
in 1697 at Edinburgh, where his father practiced as a sur- 
geon. Alexander Monro was a pupil of Cheeelden, and 
afterwards studied at Paris and under Boerhaare at 
Leyden. In 1718 he returned to Edinburgh, ami ia the 
following year was appointed Professor of Anatomj to 
the company of Surgeons, and soon after ia caiijanctlon 
with Dr, Alston he gave lectures on anatomy. B.e Vtiva 
laid the foundation of a School oE Medicine in that city. 
At his suggestion the Royal Infirmary was erected. His 
most important works were on osteology, on the nerves, 
and on inocculation. In 1759, he resigned the lectureship 
of anatomy to his son, from whom it descended to 
his grandson, but he continued his chemical lectnrea 
until a short time before his death in 1T67. It was chiefly 
through his talents that the medical acliool of Edinburgh 
rose into celebrity. 

A. D. 1707— 1778. LilUlBBUS is the latinised name I 
of Carl-Tou Linni'', an illustrious naturalist, who was born J 
May 13th, (old styW) 1707, at Kceahult, in the provinoe J 
of Smaland ia Sweden. He was the son of a clergymaD* f 
He neglected usual schoolboy learning, but in 1737 b? I 
entered on the study of medicine at the University of 1 
Lund in Scania, whence, in the followingyear, he removed'! 
to Upsal where he devoted himself to the cultivatioB I 
of Natural History, In his 24th year he conceived 
the idea of classifying or arranging plants exclusively 
Kocordiag to the relations of the sexual parts, regarding 


which he wroto a memoir. It introduced order in the 
midst of Tariety and shed lighten the imraense diver- 
sities of nature, tltougb it ultimately gave nay to the 
natural Bystem of Juasieu as etilar^ed by DecandoUe. 
In 1733 he made a journey of 3,500 miles through 
Lapland ; in 1733 he gave lectures on. Mineralogy, having 
formed a ajBtem of that science ; in 1735, he revisited 
Lapland and published a complete Flora of that country 
and afterwards visited the University of Harderwijk in 
■ Holland where he took the degree of M.D. He visited 
Lejden, England, and Paris, and in 1738 returned to 
Slockholra where he settled as a. phyaicinu, but in 1741 
he aucoeaded Roherg as Professor of Medicine at Upsal. 
His writings were of the highest order. When, in 1735, 
he visited Leyden, he published the lirst sketch of bis 
" System of Nature" filling: 12 folio pages ; he subse- 
quently published the " Fundamenta Botanica," exhibit- 
ing tlie basis of his botanical system, and in 1736 his 
HortuB Cliffortianus and Qenera Plantarum; in 1745 his 
"Flora Suecica," and in 1746 hia "Fauna Sueoica;" 
about 17B1 his " Philoaophia Botanica," and in 1753 hig 
" Species Plaatarum'' containing a description of every 
known plant, arranged according to his sexual system. 
It was one of the great works of his life. It appeared 
first in two 6vo. volumes, but Willdenowe, between the 
years 1799-1810, published at Berlin an edition in ten 
volumes. In 1768 he completed the plan of bis greatest 
work, the " Systema NaturiB," which through successive 
editions bad been enlarged to three Svo. volumes. He 
died on the lUh January 1778 of a second attack of 
apopleiy. During his long life he received many honors 
and hterary honors were conferred on Lim by the scienti- 
fic societies of foreign countries. In 1746, an honorary 
medal ofhim nasatruck at tbe expense of eome noblemen. 
In 1747 he was elected Royal Atobiater. In 1703 he was 
created a Knight of the Polar Star, an honor never before 
bestowed on a literary man. In 1761 he was elevated to 
the rank of nobility. His son Carl, born 1738, was Pro- 
fessor of Medicine at Upsal, and died 17S3. 

1708— 1777. Albert von Haller, » celebrated 
Swiss physician, the father of modern physiology. He was 

born at Berne, on the 16th October 170S, of an ancient 
familfghia father Nich oka beiug an advocate the re. Hisearly 
life was feeble and delicate, being affected with rickets, but 
hia intellect nas precocious. When only ten j'ears old be 
could translate from the Greek. He compiled a Chaldea 
grammar and a Greek and Hebrew dictionary for hie own 
use, and extracted 2,000 biographical articles from Bayle 
and Moreri, From his childhood he followed the B3reteiii 
of invariably recording everything which appeared to him 
worthy of notice. He waa Bent to a public school /o 
1721, after his fatlier's death, and in 1723 went to redda 
in the hou9e of a phyeician at Bienne, for the study of phj- 
siology. Hia medical etudiea were prolonged till he was 27 
years iild, studyiiigin 1723 at the University of Tubingdeo; 
iu 1725 at Leyden under Boethaave and A lb in ub, and 
at Tubingden in 1726 he obtained his Doctor's degree. 
About that time he visited Ruysch at Amsterdam ; in J 727 
he visited London and made the acquaintance of Cbeseldea 
and Sir Hans Sloane, thence he wentto Oxfon^ and thence 
to Paris, to pursue his anatomical and surgual ttud^es 
under WioalowErtidLeDcan, then to Basel to study m&tbe- 
matics under Bemouilli and then returned to practico as 
a physician in his native town. In 1735, be wasappointed 
physician to the hospital, but in the following year, George 
II, appointed him Profe^or of Medicine, Anatomy, Botany 
and Surgery at Gottingen, an appointment which he held 
for 18 years, when delicate health compelled his retr«at 
to Berne where he continued to reside till his death in 
October 1777 at the age of G9. He is unanimously 
received as the father of modern physiology, the history 
of which in fact commences with hia writings. He waa 
the first to investigate independently the laws of the 
animal economy which had before been studied only in 
coDoection with the prevailing mechanical, ohemioal, at 
metaphysical theories of the day. He sought ezpenmea* 
tally to discover the laws which govern the action of ths 
organs of the body during lite, and he adopted the view 
tf^t all the phenomena of life are based on the irrita- 
bility and ssNsibility of organs, The announcement of 
these doctriues in his writings gave rise to much dis- 
cussion during which was originated the discovery of the 
law that for tJie action of eacli organ a peculiar stimulua 


is required and that each tissae has what Bichat, who 
itlnetiBted it most completely, called a vie propre, its ona 
special vitality. Oftlie treatises pahlished by him between 
1727 and 1777, the titles of neatly two hundred are 
known. During his lifetime he received the high Irnnora 
which he deserved. In 1739 he was appointed physician 
to the king nf England. In 1743 he waa elected a Fellow 
of the Boy al Society of England, oIeo at different times 
sabsequeiitly, of all the learned societies of Europe, and 
in 1748 he was ennobled by the emperor of Germany. 
A political work, Versuch Schweizerischer Gedichte, went 
throngh tenoditioaain German and French, From 1750 
to 1760 he published, in 10 volumes 4tc, treatises on 
Anatomy, Surgery and Medicine. From 1757 to 1766, 
was printed hia Eleoienta Physiologias Corporis Human!, 
nr the Elements of the Physiology of the human body, 
in 8 volumes, undoubtedly the greatest work on medical 
sotencfl which the 13th century produced, and from 1774 
t<i the time of his death he was publisbiug hia Biblio- 
thecEB Atiati^miie Chirargice Mediciuae practical, Botaui- 
cte et Historia Naturalia which form 10 volumes 4to. 
completed after hia death. Hia Icones Anatomicie were 
published between 1743—1756, and hia Ptimje Hnese 
Phyaiolngifc in 1747. His labours ceased only with his 
life ; bis death occurring on the 12th December 1777. 

1713—1790. William Cullen was bom in 
Lanarkshire in Scotland in 1712. Ue wns educated in 
medicine at Glasgow, became surgeon of a vessel trading 
to the West Indies, and then settled as a practitioner, at 
first in the parish of Shotta and subsequently iu the town 
of Hamilton. Here he formed an acquaintance with 
William Hunter and the two arranged to take each others 
practice alternately, so as to allow of the other attending 
the winter Session at Edinburgh. Cullen got the first 
year and went to Edinburgh, William Hunter took the 
second year and went to Londou where he rem.tined as 
an Assistant to Dr, Douglas, a lecturer on Anatomy and 
Midwifery. Through the interest of the Duke of Hamil- 
ton, Cullen obtained, in 1746, in the University of Glas- 
gow, the oSioe of lecturer of Chemistry, and iu 1751 he 
was cbosea Regius Ptofessor of Uediciae, In 1756 he 


I obt 


obtained the Chemistry Chnir in the Uuivereity of Edin 
burgh, and at the same time delivered clinical lecturat 
at the Ei>yal Infirmary. In 1793 he waa appointecl 
Proteasiir of Materi* Medica and then resigited th 
Chemiatry Chair to hia friend Dr. Black. In 1766, h 
vaa appoioted to lecturo on tbe tlienry of Medicine, nni 
when Ur. Gregory became Professor of the Practice a 
Medicine, they agreed to combine the two, and on Dn 
Gregory's death. Dr. Cullen undettoot both till wiUiit< 
a few montha of his death, whifih happened on tbe 54 
February 1 790. Dr. Callen carried with him the reprf 
and enthusiasm of hia pupils. The foreign atndtUk 
retained an indelible iihpreasion oF his power to awaiea 
and convince. His first work " First Lines of the Practioa 
of Physic" has been repeatedly reprinted and translated 
into French, German, Italian and Latin. He exercised 
a great infiuence over iha state of opinion of medical 
science. Hia system, as delivered in this hook and il 
his lectures, combated successfully that of Boecbaare, 
of which the hamourat pathology forms a fnib, though 
Cullen has nut been equally successful in. eata^i^^aag 
his own ayatem. He arranged bis diseases uAo inui 
classes: (1), pyrexia oi febrile diseases, for instance, 
pleurisy ; (2), neuroses or nervous dise.xses, for example^ 
epilepsy ; (3), cachexiie or diseises from a bad habit d 
body, as scurvy ; (4), locales or local diseases, 'which n 
be regarded as the views of Frederick Hoffman, enlaig 
He died February Gth 1790. Hia principal works ai, 
Lectnres on the Materia Medica ; Synopais NoBoIoglri 
PracticEe, and First Lines of the Practice of Phyaic whicjt 
may be regarded as bis moat important work and c< 
tinuea to be valued, 

A. D. 1713— I78S. Percival Pott, en eniin«* 

Burgeon, was bom in London in 1713, lu 1739 he " 
[ apprenticed to Mr. Nourse, one of the surgeons ol 
Bartholomew's Hospital, and in 1736 hebeean the 
tice of his profession. In 1756 he received a sera 
compound fracture of his leg, and during the confinemei 
which the accident rendered necessary he began writin^ 
the practical surgical works for which ho haa beeft 
justly celebrated. Hia first was onKupturesj in 175T 


on Congenital Hemia ; in 1 753 on Lachrymal Fistula ; 
in 1760 on Injuries of the Head ; in 1 762 on Hjdrncaie ; 
ill 1765 on Pistula, and subaequently on fractures and 
dislocations, on cataract, on polypus of tlie nose, cliira- 
ney-sweepera' cancer, mortification of the toes and on 
paralyBis frum the diseases of tha spine. Their style ia 
clear, and probably no person of his time had more influ- 
ence in the ioaprorement of surgery, not indeed by such 
aeientific principlos as wera introduced by hia early pupil 
John Hunter, but by the introduotion of judicious and 
simpla rules of practice in every subject to which he 
directed bis attealiou. He died in 1783. 

1718—1783. William Hunter, elder brother 
of Joiin Hunter, was bgru on the 23rd May 1718 at 
LoRg Calderwood near Qlasgow. He entered tlie Glas- 
gow University iu 1733, and remained there for five years 
studying for the Church, but afterwards, influenced seem- 
ingly by bis friendship with Culleii,' he determined to 
study medicine, and then took up hia residenceat Ham- 
ilton. The two agreed to visit the Edinburgh Uni- 
versity iu alternate years ; Hunter never weut there, 
however, but in 1741 he yiaited London where ha 
studied anatomy under Dr. NichoUs and surgery at 
St. George's Hospital. In 1744 he obtained a lecture- 
Bhip to a company of Naval surgeooa. In IHB be com- 
manced lecturing on Anatomy, In 1747 he became a 
member iif tlie College of surgeons. In 1719 ho finally 
Telinqaished raere surgical practice, iu order to confine his 
attentirin wholly to medicine and midwifery. He was the 
moat scientifio man that ever practiced as an accoucbeur. 
He was much consulted as a phyoiciaii in cases requiring 
peculiar anatomicttl knowledge (or tbeir investigaiiun. In 
1750 be obtained his Doctor's denrce from Gbisgow. 
In 1 7o5 be became physician to the British Lying-in-Uos- 
pital. In 1764 he was uppjIntedPhjaieian Estraurdinary 
to the Queen, and iu that year he published lis medical 
commentaries. In 1767 he was chose u a. Fellow of the 
Royal Society and subBequeully furnished many valuable 
papers to its traneactiouH. In 17QS he was appniuted 
Ptofeasiir of Anatomy to tbe Uoyal Academy which ..tfice 
he discharged with great reputation adapting his auato- 



mical knowledge to tke arts of puoting and scaTptan 
In 1781 he was elected President of the Society of Phj* 
siciaiis of Lnsdon. He formed in bis house, ia WiDdinUI 
Street, a splendid anatomical Museani at a greftt espens^ 
' exteoding it to objucts of natural history and genend 
science — medals, sbella, corals — with a valuable colleotiw 
of Greek and Latin books. Ko bequeitbad these to fail 
nephew Dr. BuUie and Mr. Cruickshauk, for 30 yaara, it 
be then traosferred to the Univeraity of Glasgow. Bii 
largest nork ia on the anatomy of the gravid uteraa, Ha 
died in 1783, leaving a large fortune. He bad guarrdled 
with hia brutlier John Hunter on a questiou as to tl 
unatomyof the placeuta, and the reconciliatioii was nevac 
completely restored. 

A.D,1733— 1798. Leopold Anenbrugger von 

Auentarug was bom at Uratzin Styria oii the IH^ 
of Norember X723, and be practiced as a pbyaicieu. 
Vionna. Ho was pliyaician to the Spanish ua^'od in the 
imperial hospital of that city and it was tliewhe inveuted 
porcnaaion aa a means of detecting dieeases oi "Hit c^ea^ 
la 1761 be publi.>hed an account of hia discoveTy «a, 
a new inventioa for detecting by sounds the dieeases oA 
tbe human chest. He died at Vienna 1798. In I8O81 
Dr. Corvisart of the La Chatite Hoapiial of Paris pul>» 
lished a ttanslation of it, and in t82<li Dr. John Furbc^ 
published a translation of Dr. Auenbrugger'a work aik 
of Dr. Corviaort's cammeiitaries. Until tbat year percas> 
sioQ waa little kuowii or practiced in Englnud ; but ia 
the present day percussion is universally regarded oa U 
indispensable process for discriminating disorders of thl 
cheet ; and its employment, in conjunction nith the moN 
recent iuvention of auscultation by Laennec, has ledtQ 
a rapid advance in a knowledge of those diaeaaw ; percoit 
sinu is alGo practiced with great advantage in the ezplov 
ation of diseases of the abdomen. For notice of the prM 
tice of succusaion, percussion and auscultation, Sf 

A. D. 172S— 1793. John Hunter, born at Lou 

I Calderwood in Eilbride near QlBBgow A. D. 1728. Ai 

KQ anatomist aad pbysiobgiiit he has had no superioi 


He received but little education, and from liis I7th to 
his 20tii year he worked with hia brother-in-law as a 
cabinet- maker. In 1718 he wecit to Loiidun where he 
commenced hia aHatomioal studies under his brother 
William Hunter and became the pupil of Pott and of 
Cheseldeu at Cbelsea College where he aesiduomly 
studied the rudiments of surgery, In 17i3 he studied 
for a short time at Oxford, in 1760 he entered ths 
British Army and was present at the seige of fielle Isla 
(1761), aud afterwards, until 1763, in Portugal ; from 
tbia he returned to Loudon where he oommeuced medi- 
cal practice bat always regarded it as subsidiary to tho 
scientific studies in which lie engaged. He soon became 
favorably known. In 1767 he was elected a Fellow of 
the Royal Society and in 1768 surgeon to St, George's 
Hospital where be had as pupils the celebrated Jenner 
and alao Sir Everard Home whose sister he afterwards 
married. About this time be erected a building iu 
Leicester Square which he formed into an aiiatomical 
mufleum. His first publication was in 1771 on the Natu- 
ral History of tbe Teeth; noit, in 17S6, on the Venereal 
Disease ; about the same time a quai-to volume entitled 
Obaervations od various parts of the Animal Economy, 
and his treatise on the Blood, Inflammation and Qua- 
shot wounds, was one of the last of bia literary labors. 
la 1790 bo was promoted to be Inspector-General of 
Hospitals and Surgeon -General of tbe Army, He died 
suddenly in London in tbe month of October 1793, Go- 
TernmentpurchaBedbisMuaeum at hia death for ,£15,000 
and presented it to the College of Surgeons, It consisted 
of 10,000 preparations illustrative of human and compa- 
rative anatomy, physiology, pathology aud natural his- 
tory, to illnatrate the whole aubject of life by prepara- 
tionsof the bodies in which its phenomena are presented. 
They were disposed in two main divisions ; the first, 
in illustration of the functions which minister to the 
necessities of the individual ; the second, of those which 
provide for tbe continuance of the species. Hia labors 
and industry were prodigious; the manual desterity 
exhibited in displaying the various ohjeota is fully 
equal lo the intellectual power which determined their 
anaiii^ment, and besides preparing speoimeos he 


wrote largely. For years before his death he bad been 
anzinua to form a complete catalogue of his collectioa 
and to embody iu one largo Tohime the results of all hat 
labors and observations, but be died when but a smaT* 
portion was completed aud left ouly the materials il 
19 foho manuscript volumes. These were taken witte 
out leave from the College of Surgeons by hia brother-ii 
law Sir Everard Home who burned them, allegiug 
Mr. Hunter had verbally told him to do so ; amc 
them beiug the ten volumes ofdiBsections and iiuDi«fY 
ous other original papers. It is supposed that ibmj;, 
if uot all, the six quarto volumes that Sir Erenra 
Home published, originally in the Philosophical Tranala* 
tions and subsequently collected in those six volumei^ 
were taken from or suggested by John Huater'a writ* 
ings and that the buruing was made to destroy thtf 
evidences of the plagiarism. As au anatomist and phy-i 
Biologist John Hunter had no superior. As n natural 
historian, his merits were of no ordisary character. He 
is considered the greatest man that ever practiced sur- 
gery j hia wrifiuga ou surgery were valuable wii \iy ttie 
general tone of scientific investigation which he gave to 
surgical nraotiee, he greatly improved it. Before hia 
time, Burgery was a mechanical art. John Hunter first. 
made it a science and by poiuting out its peculiar excel'' 
lenee as affording visible examples of the effects aid' 
progress of disease he induced men of far higher st^ 
tainments than those who had practiced it to make i$ 
a study. 

1729—1799, LazarO Spallanzani, a celebrate* 

Italian Naturalist and Philosopher, born un the 12* 
January 1 729 at Scandiano near Reirgio, iu the Duchy e^ 
Modena. He studied at Keguio and at Bulogna uadfl 
Laura Bassi. the celebrated female Professor of Pbyaid 
in that place. From 1761 tu 1769 he was Prof essoi 
of Natural History at Modena and from ihe latta 
year till hia death at Pavia. In the intervals of 1' 
lectures he travelled to several countries ; in 1779 throiq^ 
the Swiss cantons ; in 17S5 to Corfu, Cerigaand Con 
Btantiiiople ; and in 178S through the two Sicilies e 
part of the Appeuines, to collect volcanic products . 


tlie museum at Favia. His labors were principally 
directed to eluoidatin^ tlie Buhject of the circuktiuu of 
the bluod, the functiona of digecition, reapiratioti and 
generation, on infustiry auimaJcules, ou animal aiid vege- 
table phyfiics, aud on the transpiration of plants, ou all of 
which he published treatises, viz., Experimenta on the 
reproductiun of animals^ Easaj upon A ni male nice in 
Fluids ; Microscopical Experiments ; Memoirs tm the Cir- 
culutiun of the Blood ; Travels ia the two Sicilies and the 
Appeoiues. He died at Pavia of ap^iplez; on the 12th 
Kebruary 1.799, aged 70. 

1 733—1804 1 Joseph Priestley, an eminent phi- 
losopher of England, was born at Fieldhead oii the )3th 
March 1733, old siyle. His education embraced nn any 
subjecta, and he enrly entered on inquiries into 
doctrinal points regarding the christiau religion. Ha 
travelled with the Earl of Shelburne through France, 
Flanders, Holland aud Germany aud finally settled in 
BirmiQgiiam. Between 1761 and 179t he wrote many 
books ou various subjects, but in 1768 be turned his 
atteotioQ to Pneumatic Chemistry and it is as a chemical 
discoverer he is &med. No one ever entered on the study 
of chemistry with more disadvantages, and yet few have 
occupied a more dignified station init or have coutiibuted 
a greater number of new or important facta. He dis- 
coveredoiygengas, 1 1774), nitrons gas. nitrous oxide gas, 
uitrous vapour, oarbonto oxide gas, sulphurous oxide 
gas, fiuorio acid gas, muriatio gas aud ammoniacal 
gas. He showed that the red color of arterial 
blood resulls from its combmation with the osygen 
of the atnkos|thete, that the change produced in atmos- 
pheric air during the process of combustion and pu- 
trefactioa arises from a similar abstraction of oxygea 
and he recognized tbe property possessed by vegetables 
of restoring Ibe constituent thus abstracted. His dis- 
coveries were acknowledged by his contempomries. He 
was elected a Member of the Royal Society, the Uuiver- 
aitj of Edinburgh bestowed on him the boJiorary title of 
Doctor of Laws, and in 1773 he wasawarded the Copley 
Medal for his observations on the different kinds of air. 
But, on the Hth July 1791, a mob, excited against his 


r rel 

I los 

f tht 

religious views, broke iato bis honse, destroyed his phi* 
losopbical apparatus, a valuable library, aud a large 
uumlier of manuscripts, tbe result of niaDy years laboi} 
they tbeo made an uusuccesBful attempt to buni, 
the dwelling and he had to flee for his life. Fiiidjog 
that many of his philosophical associates shunned hinij 
on the 7tb April 1794 he embarked with his family f« 
America and took up his abode at North umbei'land is 
FeansylTania. But there too, from his religious viev^ 
And being a citizen of France, he was shunned j his viA' 
died iu 1796, and after a prolonged ill-health he disd 
onthe ethFebruary 1804. Onlhe laC August l874:,ontl« 
centenary of his discovery of oxygen, the learaed men (rf 
Britain erected a statue to his memory in Birmiog^aiu 
the town where his house had been destroyed and be bad 
to flee for his life. The discoveries made by Dr. Friesb- 
leycanbest be understood bymenlioningtbat at the begin- 
ning of the 18th century hardly any one suspected 
the truth of the ancient doctrine that air and water 
and fire are elements. But about 1 755 Dr. Black of 
Edinburgh showed that what was tlieu called ftsod air, 
was capable of uniting with such matters as lime and 
alkali aud could be got again from these. In 1766 
Eeory Cavendish discovered hydrogen, which he termed' 
inflammable air, and immediately afterwards Dr. Priest* 
ley ttegaii his experiments. The number of diacoveriM 
Priestley made were marvellous ; he trebied the unmbai 
of known gases, and on the 1st August 1774 he mads 
the discovery of oxygen, which contributed easentially 
to the discovery of the true corapositioa of water. 

1749—1823. Edward Jenner, a great benefac- 
tor of the liunian race, wss born 17th May 1749 at 
Berkeley in Oloucestershire, of whicli place his fathM 
iras Vicar. He was the youngest sun and was edui 
at Cirencester, afterwards apprenticed to Mr. Ludlow, » 
Burgeon at Sudbury, and when his apprenticeship «H 
over be went to London, and became a pupil of Jahi 
Hunter, with whom he resided for two years, whil 
studying medicine at St. George's Hospital. In 177i 
he retnmed to bis native village, and practiced as ij 
Burgeon and Apothecary till 1792, when he determidi 


ed to conftne himsel/to medicine, and with tLis object 
he obtttiriflil l!ie degree of Doctor of Medicine at St. 
Andrew's UEivcrsity, About the jear 176(1 he had 
learned fi'otn the . people of Sudbury their belief that 
persona who liad had cow-pox could not be iuoculated 
with, uor take, amalUpoi, and about the year 17S0 lie 
began to entertain the idea tliat it might be poBsible 
to propagate the cour-pos first from the cow and then 
from one person to another and thereby give security 
from amall-poz. Accordingly, on the 14th May 1796, 
a boy eight years of age was Taccioated with matter 
taken from the hands of a milkmaid ; he passed through 
the disorder in a satisfactory manner and was after- 
wards inoculated for Btnall-pox on the 1st of July 
following without tlie least effect. Dr. Jenner thea 
eotered oa an estenaive seriea of experimeota of the 
aame kind, and in 1798 published his first memoir 
" An enquiry into the causes and effects of the Variolw 
Vaociiiie." It excited the greatest interest, and met 
with severe and unfair opposition, but in 1799 seventy 
of the principal physici&iia and surgeons of London 
aigoed a declaration of their entire confidence in it. 
UciantiQo honors then flowed in upon him from all 
quarters, from tiie University of Oxford, from the Boyal 
Society, and from foreign Universities and Poientates, 
The British Parliament in 1802 decreed liim a reward 
of £10,000 and in 1607 another of f20,000. He was 
invited to settle in London, but he preferred to remain 
in hia native place where he died suddenly of apoplexy 
on the 26th January 1823. Dr, Baron wrote a history 
of his life, and a statue was erected to his honor ia hia 
native county. 

17SG — 1841. Baron Dommique Jean de 

Larrey, au Army Surgeon, wlio rose to be Sur- 
geon-in-Chitf of the Army of the French cation and 
one of the most distinguished surgeons of France. 
He was born in July 1766 at Beaudeati near Bagneres 
de Bigorre in the department of the tipper Pyrenees 
iu France. He attended the hospital at Toulouse and 
then iiudied in Paris where he got employment as a 
Naval Surgeon in which capacity he visited North 

i 66 MAETE riuscois siviin bicuat. 

In 1792, at tlie outbreak of the revolution^ 
lie joined the French Army on the Ehine. He disliiL^ 
guUhed himself by the invention of the flyin» 
ambulances by means of whicli the wounded havti^ 
first been dressed were carried ofi the field of battU 
even under the fire of batteries. In 1796 be wi 
pointed a Professor in the schoo! of Medicine aoS 
Surgery at Val-de-Grace. In 1798 he accompanied 
Napoleon to the invasion of Egypt, of wbiuh. hd 
published an account, and was present in the baUlo^ 
of that grpat man at Bautzen and Wurchen where hs 
gave proofs of his courage, sagacity and zeal. After t\tB 
battle of Wagram he was made a Baron of the Empire; 
during the passage of the Berezina he vstformed an 
Important operation on the General Zajonczak then 
80 years old. In the battle of Waterloo, Larre; wa» 
wounded and taken prisoner. The Emperor Ifapolmm 
willed to him 100,000 francs, at the same tine erpress-- 
ing tiie conviction that Larrey was the most rirtaou^ 
man he had ever known. lu 1797 {new edition 1808) 
he published a Dissertation lecommending immediate 
amputation after gunshot wounds j in 1803 hia Obsei- 
Tstions on Egypt and Syria ; in ISI2 his MemoiTSon 
Military Surgery, and besides these a multitude of 
papers in Medical and Surgical Journals. The bulletin! 
of the Academy of Paris bear testimony to the enlighten^ 
ed principles on whicli he based the practice of his 
professiuu and which obtained for htm a first positioa 
among modern surgeons. He died at Lyons on 
25tb July 1841 at the age of 75. 

1771—1 802. Marie Francois Xavier Bichat, 

an eminent French Anatiraist and Phyaiid-igist, bom 
I4t!i Ko7emhBrl77l at Tlioirette near Bourg in thtt 
jitesent department of Aiti, He was the eldest Bo ' 
of Dr. Jean Baptiste Bich;it of the Montpellier Univa; 
rity. He ci'mmenced the study of practical anatom 
under bis father's tuition and under t]iat of M. Petit c 
Lyons, but in 1793 he went to Paris in order to stndjt 
Bnrgery under the celebrated Dessanlt, with whom liVi 
remained for two years as a friend and popil until 
DessauU died. After this eveut the first care of Bichat wid^^ 


to collect, arraDge aud publish the works of Lis teaclier. 
Thia he oocuj'ied himself with during the night giving the 
day to Lis duty as a Professor and phjsiciaii of the Hotel 
Dieu at Paris, a schiiid fur leaching Anatomy, Physiology 
and Surgery, dissecting for his own leoturts, carrying on 
anexieiiBiTS aeries of experiments on living animals and 
giving H cDuraa nf 0|jeiative Surgery. Such v^st labor, 
beyiiud the strength of any human beirjg, destroyed 
his health ; he was attacked with htemoptysis from 
which he rallied but resumed bis labors witli the same 
intensity as before. One dny his foot slipped as he was 
descending the staps of the Hotel Dieu and he became 
insensible from a blow he received on his head. Again 
resuming his avocntiuns he fainted from fatigue, and thia 
was followed by fever that assumed a typhoid character 
which proved fatal on Ihe 1 4th day of the attack. Thus 
perished at the age of thirty a man of extraordinary 
genius nud energy, a melancholy example of a life which 
promised to be one of uncommon brilliance and useful- 
ness, cut short by the intensity oF its devotion to science, 
Bichikt gave an impulse to the progress of physiology 
which is still powerfully felt. He was the first, by a syste- 
matic analysis, to reduce the complex structures of the 
body to their elementary tissues and to ascertain the pro- 
perties, physical, chemical and vital, which behing to each 
simple tissue, His work, A.nalomie Qeneral, showe minute 
and laborious research, elaborate and extended experi- 
ment, and great manual and practical skill and if he 
never had written nnything else would alone have'given 
blm immortality, showing as it does in the general coa- 
clusions deduced and established a truly pliilosophical 
mind. It waa noiverFaliy recognized aa a work of ex- 
traordinary gen ins. It was foliiiwed by his " Aiiatomie 
DescriptivB" snd an elaborate work the Physiological 
lieeearches on Life and Death in which he suggested and 
developed the dtstiiiction between the organic and ani- 
mal life, a disliuotinn of scarcely less iiu|ioitaiice to Iha 
surgeon and physician than to iha speculative and ex- 
perimentalising pbysiologbt. He died in 1803. 

A. D. 1774—1842. Sir Charles Bell was bom 
at Edinburgh A, D. 1774. He was one of the most 

58 sm CHARLEa bell. 

distrnguislied aimtomtsta in modera times, ranking as bI 
diacoTever equal to HaiTey. la 1806 be published in. 
Loudon the "Anatomy of Expression,'' in. 1807 h;' 
" System of Operative Surgery" appeared, and i 
1828-9 that on Asinial Mechauica. Be ^ns the authl 
of the " Bridgewftter treatise on the Hand," and < 
illuBtrationa to Paley'a Theology. He was euooesuvafa 
surgeon to the Middlesex Hospital (1SI4), Prufeaaotoj 
Physiology in the University of London (1830) ; 
1836 Professor of Surgery in the Edinburgh Uaiveriit)H>S 
His great discovery was as regards the nervous Byitan, T 
E.e had been teaching it since 1810 but his first p^M I 
on the subject was read before the lloyal Society in I 
1821. The older anatomists believed all nerves alikt I 
capable of conveying motion and sensation j the BSaenos 1 
of Sir Charles Bell's discovery was that every nerve bu I 
a distinct function according to the part of the brain <a I 
spinal marrow with which it is connected. Altboagb [ 
sometimes ns many as three di£lerent nerves are bouud 
Up together in the same sheath for conveniencs of dis- 
tribution to the Cleans they are intended to snppij, »ti4 
though after having become thus united it la imposstbla 
to distinguish one fibril from another yet at their oob- 
nections with the brain and spinal marrow their eeveRd 
roots are quite distinct. He showed that thosa roots 
which are connected with the back part of the spinal 
inaiTow are all nerves of feeling and incapable of giviag 
power of motion to the muscles, in short, that they are 
the bearers of messages from the body to the brain : and 
that all the roots of nerves connected with the front or 
anterior column of the spinal marrow and that portion of 
the brain connected with it are nerves of voluntary motion 
only aud the messengers of the will to the body. He 
farther discovered that there sre nerves nhich arist 
from a portion of the brain and spinal marrow interme- 
diate between the sensitive aud motor tract of nervous 
matter, whose office it is to regulate the involuntary 
motions connected with respiration aud the expression 
oftiie passions. In like manner, the nerves of the 
special senses, seeing, smelling and hearing, enter dis- 
tinct portions of the brain that form as much parts of 
■ the organs of these senses as the eye, nose or ear. Hm 

acGCSTiN PTEAue de casdolle, Ac. 


disooveriea opened up to the anatamist and the natural- 
ist hitherto concealed avenues to knowledge, also 
afforded a guide previously wanting to the surgeon in 
bia operatioDB, and rescued the whole treatmeat of 
nervous disorders from the dominion of mere empiricism. 
He threw out many hints of great value in ieoturea 
and short essays. Cuvier, Larrey and other illuatvioua 
meQ vied with one another in testifying their admir- 
ation of his talents and labors, and King William IV 
selected biin for knighthood along with Herschel, Brews- 
ter and others. He died at Hallow Park, the seat of 
Mrs. Hnllaud, on his way to Loudon, on the 37th 
April 1842. 

1778—1841. Augustin Pyrame de CandoUe 

was born at Gtneva in 177« o£ a family diatia- 
(Enished in literature siuce two hundred years. In 177S, 
Haller,Linu»iissnd6erT)aTddeJus^ieudied. De Candolle 
became Profeaaocof Botany at Montpellier in France 
and raised the botanical gardeu there to a high condi- 
tion, but political adveTsaries caused his lemoval in 
1814? His Dative city, however, in 181G formed a 
botanical fcirden, which was placed under his care, and 
created a PtofeBsorship of Botany to the chair of which 
he was appoiDted. He pablished many books; in 1709, 
Plantarnm Succulentanim Hietoria in 4 volumes ; in 
1803 his Astrologia; in 1809-1B13 aided by Lamarqne, 
Flore Fr»n9aise, iu 6 volumes; in 1813 a oatalogue 
of the plants in the Montpellier botanical gardens, and 
also hie great work llegni Vegetabilia Systema Naturale, 
hia PriidtomuB Systematia Naturalia Regni Vegetabilis, 
and Tlieorie Elemantnire de la Botaniqae. His name 
ranks as a botanist afrer the great Swedish naturalist 
Linniens and the French botinist Bernard de Juseieu. 
He died on the 9th September 1S41. 

1781-182C. R^ne Theophile Hyacinthe 

IiaenneC was bum at Quimper in Lowtr Brittany in 
1781, and received from hia uncle at Nantes, the first 
part of his medical education. In 1800 he went to 
Paris and attended the several medical cuuraes and at 
tbeJioipital of La Charity uadcr Dr, Corrieart, and in 



18)4 he took tha degrees of Medicine. Ke edited tb 
Jciurnal of Medicine and became well known iu practiix, 
and in 1816 Ciiief Phjaician to ike Necker HnspiUl, 
and it was there that be soon after made the discDTH; 
of the stethiwcope aa aa aid tit the eiir in eKamioitg 
the Bounds of the organs of the body. In the pTesent 
day three methods fire known for detecting diBeaw 1 
of the chest by the kelp of the senee of hearing. Thq 
are called " succuFsion" " percussion" and " auaculB' 
tim." SuccussioQ is mentioned by Hippocrates, iiod aem^ Wi 
to have been commonly employed in his time forftBLic 
dioguosia of empyema, a, disease in which the pleiA^ i>^ 
cavity is partly occupied by a liquid. This mode d I t 
examination consists in shaking the patieut by lb I a 
shoulders and listeuing to the sound of Snctuation, Ttt. I ii 
Leopold Auenbriigger von Auenbrug, about A. D. 1T61 I £ 
invented a system of exauiining the chest by percassioiL I l 
Dr. Corvisart, about A. D. ISOO, as a meana of aacei- I i 
taining the socnds of the chest, placed the ear directly ] 
on it which was called from this immediute auscal- ' o 
tation, and about 1817 his pupil Dr. Laennec, for tie 1 s 
same purpose, invented an instrument called the sletiioe- ' i; 
cope for mediate auscultation which is nndoMhtedif I ^ 
one of the most important discoveries in nnjicfd 
science of the presunt century. Ho was then Piyaician I 
of the Necker Hospital at Paris, In 1818 ie read | ' 
his first memoir on it, end in 1819 he published bU 
treatise on Mediate Auscullation. He lost bis liealth 
then from his great labor, and left Paris, to wliidi 
he returned in lb2l, and conlinned PhyKician of tha 
Keeker Hospital till 1826, when it wan discovered k^ 
means of his own invention that consumption had set 
in, and he retired to Brittany where he died. His 
invention of the stethoscope induced him to apply tim- 
eelf to the investigation of diseases of the chest, and ha 
BO far elucidated their pathology, that ihnugh tboee 
diseases at the beginning of the lOth century were in- 
volved iu the greatest obscurity, they are now the nioat 
completely and clearly known of all which fall 'witliin 
the province of the physician who now studies them 
with the ear with almost as great accuracy and coii- 
gdence as the surgeon can investigate the diseases ot 


-wliich Le takes charge with the eye or the hand. Auacul- 
tatioii is aho largely applied to ascertain the actiun of the 
Iieart ut' the fcetus during pregnancy and during labor. 
Xiaeonec publiEhad several works of importance ; that 
on auaouilation was translated by Dr. Edward Forbes. 

1783— 18G2. Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie, 

Barouet, waa boru in 17^3 at Winteraluw, iu Wiltshire. 
He was educated for the medical professinn at Mr. 
Wilson's Anatumical School in Great Windmill Street, 
Limdun.aod at St. George's Hospital where he was a pupil 
tit Sic Everard Home. He afterwards lectured on ana- 
tomy juiutly with Mr. Wilaon, was elected in 1808 
aasiacant aurgeoo ti) St. George's Hospital, and afterwards 
its surgeon. In I81L he was presented by the Royal 
Society with the Copley Medal for hia papers on Physio- 
logy. In 1832 he waa appointed Serjeant Surgeon to the 
Queen, was created a Biironet in 1831, and iu 18S0 the 
University of Oxford conferred on him the degree of Doctor 
of Lnwa. Uewroteuu Nervous Affections, Pathological and 
SurgicAlObservatiuDS, Diseusesof the Joints, Lectures ou 
Diaeaaesof the Urinary Orgaus, Physiological Researches, 
aad Peychological In(juirie3. He died Slst Octr. 1862. 

1—1835 t William Twining was bom in Nova 
Scotia, at Halifax, where he w^s apprenticed to a medical 
practitioner and afterwards studied in Loudou. He en- 
tered the medical department of the British Army in ldl2, 
serving in the Peninsula and Netherlnuds and England 
until 1821, when he went to Ceylon. From there ho 
accompanied the governor Sir Edward Paget to India. 
In 1830 he resigned the British Service and entered 
into private practice in Calcutta where be waa appointed 
one of thesurgeons to the Civjl Hospital j he died suddenly, 
in high reputation, in 1839. Numerous articles from bis 
pen appeared iu the Trancactious of the Medical Society of 
Calcutta, but his chief work was his clinical illustrations 
of the more important diseases of Bengal with the 
result of au inquiry as to their pathology and treatment. 
it went tbrough two editions. It la one of the few medi- 
cal wotks by practitioners in India, to be found in the 
libraries of profeasioael meo in tbat country. 



— ' Robert Liston ™»8 bom at the Manae of Ec- 
clesmachen near Liulithgow where his father wa^a piriah 
minister, tie begnn practice as a surgeon of EdiDburgh 
where he lectured on surgery, o^iid was uue of the surzeona 
of ihe Itoyal Itihrmarf. He published a text boob OD 
surgery for hia sludenta. He was u. contemporary of 
James Syme tiiid was remarkable for the exteiit of his 
BnatomicitL kuuvekdge nud for hia boldness and manul 
skill iu operating. H e made a modification of tilt 
lung splint of De3sault, which is now everywhere nuif 
iu fractures of the thigh bone under the name of Littm'i 
Lung Splint. In 1834, after the death of Sir At&q 
Cooper, he left Edinburgh for London, where ho «H 
Burgeon uf the fforth London Hospital and afterwardi 
lecturecon Surgery at Uoivarsity College. He died, 18— ( 
exhausted b;^ a continuous bleeding wbich was asceituatd 1 
after death to have beeu from an aneurism, 

1800— ISrO. JamGsSyme, asargeon of Edinbugl^ 

Abduttbe year 1830, aided^^by friends, be opened uhe 
pital priucipallj for surgical diseases ; be lectured I' 
on snrgery to a large class of medical atudenta, «i 
he inspired with hia own zeal for hia prof esaioo, and m 
warm feelings of personal renpect and attacbmeoL B^M 
was distinguished by his preeminent ponera of iatpw 
and equally preeminent dexterity in operating, He«i 
ftiiiated the operation for removing the foot at Uie antie 
joint, with ihe heel for a flap, aad to bim also u peallj 
due the introduction of amputations of the thigh bj 
making flaps uf skin and division of the muscles aa in 
the circular operation. He died 26th June 1870. 

180i— Richard Owen, bom at Lancaster in 1804, 
a celebrated Cumparative anatomist. Wben very yung 
lie served as a Midshipman on board H.M. Ship Tribune, 
but on peace occurring in ]814 he returned to Bchool, 
theu he became 4 medical pupil of a surgeon at Lan- 
caster, in 1824 he studied Medicine under Dr. Barclay 
at Edinburgh, and in 1825 in Loudon at St. Bar- 
tholomew's Hospital. He never took up medicine m 
a profession. His first employment was at the Hoyal 
College of Surgeons about 18:i6 where ha took char(" 
a/ John iiunter'a MuBoum, aa4 loi thirty years 



t JAMBS lortro SIMPSON. 63 

issued volume after volama of its catalogue, till the 
whole was completed, doriog nbich new ideas v/ere 
saggested, new paths of iuqairj opened up and dis- 
coveries made in every direction. ' The transiictiouB 
of tbe Hoyal, the Zoolugtcal, and tlie Geological Societies, 
the Reports of the British ABaociation, tbe Aunala 
and MiigaziDes of Naturnl Histor;, the Cyclopiedia 
of Anatomy and Fbyaiology, the Manual of Scientific 
Inquiry, with numerous independent works, bear testi- 
mony to an activity seldom equalled, perhaps never aur- 
pBB9ed,asa comparntive anatomist and physiologist, as 
» Zuuloogist, as a PaJisontologist and as the philoaophi- 
oal exponent of the general laws regulating the forms and 
development of animal Lfe. He was oue of the first in 
Great Britain who began to employ the microscope in 
inveetigatiuns, and was one of tbe founders and first 
President of the Microscopical Snciety, In 1836 he was 
appointed to succeed Sir Charles Bell as Hunterian 
Profe«Bor of the Rnyal College of Surgeons and then pub- 
lished hia lectures uu Oom[iarative Anatomy of which 
a second edition appeared in 1853, and iu 1 ^56 he was 
ai)pointGd chief of the Natural Hintory Department of 
tbe British Museum. His career will bear com pari sou 
with tbe most brilliant names in the past or present 
gauerationH. Baron Humboldt spoke of him as the great- 
est anatomist of tbe sge, and another eminent writer 
calls him tbe Newton of Natural History. He received 
numerous acknowledgments of his scientific merits. In 
1848 he was presented by the Royal Society of Lnndoo 
with the Royal Medal, and in 185 1 with the Copley Medal. 
Fnim the British Government be received a pension and 
Queen Victoria granted him a residence at one of tbe Royal 
Houses at Richmond Park. The King of PruEsis. be- 
stowed upon him, on the death of Oersted in 1851, the 
distinction of Obevslier of the Order of Merit. The 
University of Oxford conferred on him Ihe degree of 
Doctor of Civil Law, that of Edinburgh honored him 
with its degree of Doctor of Laws, and every distin- 
guished Snciety iu Europe and America that cultivates 
tbe uatural sciences, bas elected bim a foreign member. 

1811—1870. Bir James Young Simpson, Baro- 

--' -a emiueut medical practitioner who raised himaeU by 




his inliellect and his discoveries to a highly honorable pod 
tion in life and was created a B^ironet of the United Einj 
dom b; Quean Victoria. He waa born at Bathgate in Lio 
lithgowshire vhere his father was a. h^ker. He tuokhi 
degree of Doctor of Madiciaa in the University of Mik 
burgh : he became assistant to Professor Thompeoi^ 
in 1610 he was nppoiiited professor of midwifeiy ig 
the Universityof Ediubargh and was snbsequentlyhonoRd 
with the appointment of Phyniciau Accoucheur in Scotlnd 
Id Her Majesty Queen Victoria. His lectures aln» 
became popular and he has perhaps coDtributed mor 
any other professor in later times to snstain the fame erf te 
Ediuburgh School of Medicine. But it is to his emplf^ 
meat of aneesthetica in midwifery that his reput^itioa iftai 
tiiroughout the world: on the discovery, in Aiueruii)i)( 
the aneestheUc properties of ether, he availed himaellDt 
it to alleviate the pangs of labor. The effBcta prodnnd 
however led him to seek some other agent and hedt*- 
covered the more beneficial action of chl'troforii, u^ 
for this triumph of ecieaue over physical Buffeiiiilka 
was rewarded with a prize of 3,000 francs from the Pi ' 
Academy of Sciences and elected member of many leaned 
Societies of Britain and Europe, it has eased the nif- 
ferings of millioae of human beings. He oontobititi 
largely to the literature of his profession, B.nilmi'nt- 
ings were collected and printed in two volumatbytvo 
of hifl former pupils. He invented and brougftt into ex- 
tensive use the uterine auund, as a valaable iuatinmeDlin 
the diiignoais of uterine diaeaaea and diaplacements, I 
to him IS in large measure due the great stride made iat^ 
ing the middle of the 1 9th century in the successful dates' 
tion and treatment of uterine diseases. Acupressare w 
Bubstitnte for delegation of arteries was also introdaoedbf 
this accomplished physician, who was almost as famoiu ■ 
an archeeologist as he was in his professional speoialt 
His scientific knowledge was both variona and profoim 
He wrote on Leprosy, on Boman Medicine Stamps, 01 
ancient Lykiou vases. He died 6th May 1S70. 

— 'Conolly, Dr,, an eminent physician, who devoid 
much attentdi>u to the care of the inmatea of Haawal 
Lunatic Asylum near Loodon, In the earliest times 
which we have record, tbe insane were either neglected 

I. icABioM SIMS, 65 

Tor treated with great Beverity. The first who endea- 
TDured to ameliorate the conditioa of this closa of sick 
people vias the benevolent and courageous Fine), a phy- 
aician of Paris, who, tuwarde the end of 1793, was allow- 
ed by the authorities of the Bioetre Asylum in that city 
to discontinue the ereat restraints placed on the inmates. 
Mr. Tuke, in 1S13, urged the introduction of amilder 
tnatmeut of the insane. But to Dr. Charlesworth and 
Mr. Uillof the LincoIuLnnaticAaylum, which was opened 
on the 26th April 1820, belongs the credit of declaring 
the tutal abolition of mechanical instrumenta of restraint 
desirable and practicable, This view was given effect to 
gradually, but by March 1837 restraint was entirely 
abolished in that Institution, and Mr. Hill recorded ;i3 
his opinion, that " in a properly constructed building, 
" with a eufiicient number of suitable attendants, re- 
" atraint 18 never necessary, never justifiable aud always 
"injurious." Subsequently, in 1844, Dr. CoiioJIy re- 
ported that " there is no Asylum in the world, in which 
" all mechanical restraints may not be abolished not 
"only with safety, but with incalculable advantage." 
The most dislinguished of the pbysiciaus who havs 
written on mental diseases in England are Drs. Frichard, 
Conolly, Burrows and Haslam, and Drs. Bucknill and 
Tuke wrote a manual of Psychological Medicine. In 
Pmnce, Dr. Pinel wrote " Sur I'Alienation Mentale," 
Dr. Esquirol wrote " Sur les Maladies Mentales," and 
Georget, " Sur la Fohe ;'' in Germany, Heinroth wrote 
" Die Stiiningen des Seelen lebene," and Jacobi wrote 
" Sammlungeu f iir die Heilkuude der G emutbakrankei- 
ten," Si^ William Ellis, an English physician, first at 
Wakefield and afterwards at the Hanwell Asylum, intro- 
duced employment amongst the inmates. Since the 
British arrived in India, they have erected several Asylums 
for the insanes : Calcutta, Madras, Bangalore, Calicu^ 
Vizagapatam, Bombay aud Raugoou, each has one of 
these Inetitutiona. 

J. Marion Sims, A-B., M-D, an eminent phy- 
sician of tlie United tjtates of America, who in that 
country end in Europe has distinguished himself by his 
knowledge of uteriue surgery, and hia invention of the 
duck-bill i^peculuuj. 

I 1 

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